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Introduction Pakistan
Background: The separation in 1947 of British
India into the Muslim state of
Pakistan (with two sections West and
East) and largely Hindu India was
never satisfactorily resolved. A
third war between these countries in
1971 resulted in East Pakistan
seceding and becoming the separate
nation of Bangladesh. A dispute over
the state of Kashmir is ongoing. In
response to Indian nuclear weapons
testing, Pakistan conducted its own
tests in 1998.

Geography Pakistan
Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian
Sea, between India on the east and
Iran and Afghanistan on the west and
China in the north
Geographic coordinates: 30 00 N, 70 00 E
Map references: Asia
Area: total: 803,940 sq km
land: 778,720 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of
Land boundaries: total: 6,774 km
border countries: Afghanistan 2,430
km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km,
Iran 909 km
Coastline: 1,046 km
Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or to the
edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in
northwest; arctic in north
Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains
in north and northwest; Balochistan
plateau in west
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-
Austen) 8,611 m
Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas
reserves, limited petroleum, poor
quality coal, iron ore, copper,
salt, limestone
Land use: arable land: 27.81%
permanent crops: 0.79%
other: 71.4% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: 180,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, occasionally
severe especially in north and west;
flooding along the Indus after heavy
rains (July and August)
Environment - current issues: water pollution from raw sewage,
industrial wastes, and agricultural
runoff; limited natural fresh water
resources; a majority of the
population does not have access to
potable water; deforestation; soil
erosion; desertification
Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban
Geography - note: controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass,
traditional invasion routes between
Central Asia and the Indian

People Pakistan
Population: 147,663,429 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 39.9% (male 30,321,217;
female 28,581,334)
15-64 years: 56% (male 42,254,996;
female 40,392,092)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male
2,984,391; female 3,129,399) (2002
Population growth rate: 2.06% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 30.4 births/1,000 population (2002
Death rate: 9.02 deaths/1,000 population (2002
Net migration rate: -0.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population
(2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/
total population: 1.05 male(s)/
female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 78.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 61.82 years
female: 62.73 years (2002 est.)
male: 60.96 years
Total fertility rate: 4.25 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 74,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 6,500 (1999 est.)
Nationality: noun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani
Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan),
Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from
India at the time of partition and
their descendants)
Religions: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%),
Christian, Hindu, and other 3%
Languages: Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a
Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%,
Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%,
Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English
(official and lingua franca of
Pakistani elite and most government
ministries), Burushaski, and other
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
and write
total population: 42.7%
male: 55.3%
female: 29% (1998)

Government Pakistan
Country name: conventional long form: Islamic
Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan
Government type: federal republic
Capital: Islamabad
Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1
capital territory**; Balochistan,
Federally Administered Tribal
Areas*, Islamabad Capital
Territory**, North-West Frontier
Province, Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered
portion of the disputed Jammu and
Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir
and the Northern Areas
Independence: 14 August 1947 (from UK)
National holiday: Republic Day, 23 March (1956)
Constitution: 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July
1977, restored with amendments 30
December 1985; suspended 15 October
Legal system: based on English common law with
provisions to accommodate Pakistan's
status as an Islamic state; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal; separate
electorates and reserved
parliamentary seats for non-Muslims
Executive branch: note: following a military takeover
on 12 October 1999, Chief of Army
Staff and Chairman of the Joint
Chiefs of Staff Committee, General
Pervez MUSHARRAF, suspended
Pakistan's constitution and assumed
the additional title of Chief
Executive; exercising the powers of
the head of the government, he
appointed an eight-member National
Security Council to function as
Pakistan's supreme governing body;
on 12 May 2000, Pakistan's Supreme
Court unanimously validated the
October 1999 coup and granted
MUSHARRAF executive and legislative
authority for three years from the
coup date; on 20 June 2001,
MUSHARRAF named himself and was
sworn in as president, replacing
Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; in a
referendum held on 30 April 2002,
MUSHARRAF won an overwhelming
majority of votes, extending his
rule for five more years
chief of state: President Pervez
MUSHARRAF (since 20 June 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the
chief executive
head of government: Chief Executive
Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 12 May 2000)

elections: prior to the military
takeover, Pakistan had an elected
president and prime minister; the
president was elected by Parliament
for a five-year term; election last
held 31 December 1997 (next election
to be held NA); following
legislative elections, the leader of
the majority party or majority
coalition was usually elected prime
minister by the National Assembly;
election last held 3 February 1997
(next to be held NA)
election results: results are for
the last elections for prime
minister and president prior to the
military takeover - Mohammad Nawaz
SHARIF elected prime minister;
percent of National Assembly vote -
NA%; Rafiq TARAR elected president;
percent of Parliament vote - NA%
Legislative branch: note - Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF
dissolved Parliament following the
military takeover of 12 October
1999; bicameral Parliament or
Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the
Senate (87 seats; members indirectly
elected by provincial assemblies to
serve six-year terms; one-third of
the members up for election every
two years) and the National Assembly
(217 seats - 10 represent non-
Muslims; members elected by popular
vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 12
March 1997 (next to be held by
October 2002); National Assembly -
last held 3 February 1997 (next to
be held by October 2002)
election results: results are for
the last elections prior to the
military takeover; Senate - percent
of vote by party - NA%; seats by
party - PML/N 30, PPP 17, ANP 7,
MQM/A 6, JWP 5, BNP 4, JUI/F 2, PML/
J 2, BNM/H 1, PKMAP 1, TJP 1,
independents 6, vacant 5; National
Assembly - percent of vote by party
- NA%; seats by party - PML/N 137,
PPP 18, MQM/A 12, ANP 10, BNP 3, JWP
2, JUI/F 2, PPP/SB 1, NPP 1,
independents 21, minorities 10; note
- Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF dismissed
Parliament 15 October 1999
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (justices appointed by
the president); Federal Islamic or
Shari'a Court
Political parties and leaders: note: Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF
dissolved Parliament following the
military takeover of 12 October
1999, however, political parties
have been allowed to operate within
limits; Awami National Party or ANP
[Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National
Movement/Hayee Group or BNM/H [Dr.
HAYEE Baluch]; Baluch National Party
or BNP [Sardar Akhtar MENGAL];
Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP [Akbar
Khan BUGTI]; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH
[Sajid MIR]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam,
Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F
[Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-
Pakistan, Niazi faction or JUP/NI
[Abdul Sattar Khan NIAZI]; Millat
Party [Farooq LEGHARI]; Milli
Yakjheti Council or MYC is an
umbrella organization which includes
Jamaat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain
AHMED], Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami-
ul-Haq faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-
HAQ], Tehrik-I-Jafria Pakistan or
TJP [Allama Sajid NAQVI], and Jamiat
Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani faction or
JUP/NO [Shah Ahmad NOORANI];
Mutahida Qaumi Movement, Altaf
faction or MQM/A [Altaf HUSSAIN];
National People's Party or NPP
[Ghulam Mustapha JATOI]; Pakhtun
Khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP
[Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakhtun
Quami Party or PQP [Mohammed AFZAL
Khan]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT
[Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim
League, Functional Group or PML/F
[Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim
League, Junejo faction or PML/J
[Hamid Nasir CHATTHA]; Pakistan
Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction
or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan
Muslim League, Quaid-l-Azam faction
[Mian AZHAR]; Pakistan National
Party or PNP [Hasil BIZENJO];
Pakistan People's Party or PPP
[Benazir BHUTTO]; Pakistan People's
Party/Shaheed Bhutto or PPP/SB
[Ghinva BHUTTO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-
Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]
note: political alliances in
Pakistan can shift frequently
Political pressure groups and military remains most important
leaders: political force; ulema (clergy),
landowners, industrialists, and
small merchants also influential
International organization AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), C
participation: (suspended), CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP,
FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer),
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ashraf
Jehangir QAZI
FAX: [1] (202) 387-0484
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles,
New York, and Sunnyvale (California)

chancery: 2315 Massachusetts Avenue
NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6205
Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Wendy
US: J. CHAMBERLIN (since Aug. 2001)
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna
5, Islamabad
mailing address: P. O. Box 1048,
Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200
telephone: [92] (51) 2080-0000
FAX: [92] (51) 2276427
consulate(s) general: Karachi
consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar
Flag description: green with a vertical white band
(symbolizing the role of religious
minorities) on the hoist side; a
large white crescent and star are
centered in the green field; the
crescent, star, and color green are
traditional symbols of Islam

Economy Pakistan
Economy - overview: Pakistan, an impoverished and
underdeveloped country, suffers from
internal political disputes, lack of
foreign investment, and a costly
confrontation with neighboring
India. Pakistan's economic
prospects, marred by poor human
development indicators, low levels
of foreign investment, and reliance
on international creditors for hard
currency inflows, were nonetheless
on an upswing through most of 2001.
The MUSHARRAF government made
significant inroads in macroeconomic
reform - it completed an IMF short-
term loan program for the first time
and improved its standing with
international creditors by
increasing revenue collection and
restraining the fiscal deficit in
the 2001/02 budget. While Pakistan
has capitalized on its international
standing after the 11 September
terrorist attacks on the US by
garnering substantial assistance
from abroad - including $1.3 billion
in IMF Poverty Reduction and Growth
Facility aid and $12.5 billion in
Paris Club debt rescheduling - long-
term prospects remain uncertain. GDP
growth will continue to hinge on
crop performance; dependence on
foreign oil leaves the import bill
vulnerable to fluctuating oil
prices; and foreign and domestic
investors remain wary of committing
to projects in Pakistan. Pakistani
trade levels - already in decline
due to the global economic downturn
- worsened in the aftermath of the
September 11 attacks.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $299
billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.3% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,100
(2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 26%
industry: 24%
services: 50% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line: 35% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 4.1%
percentage share: highest 10%: 27.7% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini 31.2 (1996-97)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2001 est.)
Labor force: 40.4 million
note: extensive export of labor,
mostly to the Middle East, and use
of child labor (2000)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 44%, industry 17%,
services 39% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 6.3% (2001 est.)
Budget: revenues: $8.9 billion
expenditures: $11.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of
$NA (FY00/01 est.)
Industries: textiles, food processing,
beverages, construction materials,
clothing, paper products, shrimp
Industrial production growth rate: 7% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production: 62.687 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 64.09%
hydro: 35.31%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0.6%
Electricity - consumption: 58.299 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane,
fruits, vegetables; milk, beef,
mutton, eggs
Exports: $8.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
Exports - commodities: textiles (garments, cotton cloth,
and yarn), rice, other agricultural
Exports - partners: US 24.8%, UK 6.5%, UAE 6.2%, Hong
Kong 5.9%, Germany 5.6%, (2000)
Imports: $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
Imports - commodities: machinery, petroleum, petroleum
products, chemicals, transportation
equipment, edible oils, grains,
pulses, flour
Imports - partners: Kuwait 11.7%, UAE 10.7%, Saudi
Arabia 10.5%, US 6%, Japan 5.6%
Debt - external: $31.5 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $2 billion (FY99/00)
Currency: Pakistani rupee (PKR)
Currency code: PKR
Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees per US dollar -
60.719 (January 2002), 61.927
(2001), 53.648 (2000), 49.118
(1999), 44.943 (1998), 40.918 (1997)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Communications Pakistan
Telephones - main lines in use: 2.861 million (March 1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 158,000 (1998)
Telephone system: general assessment: the domestic
system is mediocre, but improving;
service is adequate for government
and business use, in part because
major businesses have established
their own private systems; since
1988, the government has promoted
investment in the national
telecommunications system on a
priority basis, significantly
increasing network capacity; despite
major improvements in trunk and
urban systems, telecommunication
services are still not readily
available to the majority of the
rural population
domestic: microwave radio relay,
coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable,
cellular, and satellite networks
international: satellite earth
stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3
operational international gateway
exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at
Islamabad); microwave radio relay to
neighboring countries (1999)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 27, FM 1, shortwave 21 (1998)
Radios: 13.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 22 (plus seven low-power repeaters)
Televisions: 3.1 million (1997)
Internet country code: .pk
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 30 (2000)
Internet users: 1.2 million (2000)

Transportation Pakistan
Railways: total: 8,163 km
broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge
(293 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge
Highways: total: 247,811 km
paved: 141,252 km (including 339 km
of expressways)
unpaved: 106,559 km (1998)
Waterways: none
Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products
885 km; natural gas 4,044 km (1987)
Ports and harbors: Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim
Merchant marine: total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 241,832 GRT/367,093 DWT
ships by type: cargo 13, container
3, petroleum tanker 1 (2002 est.)
Airports: 120 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 85
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 3 (2001)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 35
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 18 (2001)
Heliports: 9 (2001)

Military Pakistan
Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed
Forces, National Guard
Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 36,941,592 (2002
Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 22,606,576 (2002
service: est.)
Military manpower - reaching military males: 1,657,724 (2002 est.)
age annually:
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2,545.5 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of 4.6% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Pakistan
Disputes - international: armed stand-off with India over the
status and sovereignty of Kashmir
continues; dispute with India over
the terminus of Rann of Kutch
prevents extension of a maritime
boundary; water-sharing problems
with India persist over the Indus
River (Wular Barrage); close ties
with Pashtuns in Afghanistan make
long border difficult to control
Illicit drugs: Poppy cultivation practically
eliminated with only 213 hectares
grown; potential heroin production 5
tons; key transit area for Southwest
Asian heroin moving to Western
markets; narcotics still move from
Afghanistan, transiting Balochistan
Province or Karachi for onward
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