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Algeria

 

Algeria
Introduction Algeria
--------------------
Background: After a century of rule by France,
Algeria became independent in 1962.
The surprising first round success
of the fundamentalist FIS (Islamic
Salvation Front) party in the
December 1991 balloting caused the
army to intervene, crack down on the
FIS, and postpone the subsequent
elections. The FIS response has
resulted in a continuous low-grade
civil conflict with the secular
state apparatus, which nonetheless
has allowed elections featuring pro-
government and moderate religious-
based parties. FIS's armed wing, the
Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded
itself in January 2000 and many
armed militants surrendered under an
amnesty program designed to promote
national reconciliation.
Nevertheless, residual fighting
continues. Other concerns include
Berber unrest, large-scale
unemployment, a shortage of housing,
and the need to diversify the
petroleum-based economy.

Geography Algeria
-----------------
Location: Northern Africa, bordering the
Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco
and Tunisia
Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 3 00 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 2,381,740 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 2,381,740 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the
size of Texas
Land boundaries: total: 6,343 km
border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali
1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco
1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965
km, Western Sahara 42 km
Coastline: 998 km
Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters
with hot, dry summers along coast;
drier with cold winters and hot
summers on high plateau; sirocco is
a hot, dust/sand-laden wind
especially common in summer
Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some
mountains; narrow, discontinuous
coastal plain
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
highest point: Tahat 3,003 m
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore,
phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Land use: arable land: 3.21%
permanent crops: 0.21%
other: 96.57% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: 5,600 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe
earthquakes; mudslides and floods in
rainy season
Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and
other poor farming practices;
desertification; dumping of raw
sewage, petroleum refining wastes,
and other industrial effluents is
leading to the pollution of rivers
and coastal waters; Mediterranean
Sea, in particular, becoming
polluted from oil wastes, soil
erosion, and fertilizer runoff;
inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear
Test Ban
Geography - note: second-largest country in Africa
(after Sudan)

People Algeria
--------------
Population: 32,277,942 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.5% (male 5,512,369;
female 5,311,914)
15-64 years: 62.4% (male 10,175,135;
female 9,950,315)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male
610,643; female 717,566) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.68% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 22.34 births/1,000 population (2002
est.)
Death rate: 5.15 deaths/1,000 population (2002
est.)
Net migration rate: -0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population
(2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/
female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/
female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 39.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.24 years
female: 71.67 years (2002 est.)
male: 68.87 years
Total fertility rate: 2.63 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.07% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian
Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than
1%
Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%,
Christian and Jewish 1%
Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber
dialects
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
and write
total population: 61.6%
male: 73.9%
female: 49% (1995 est.)

Government Algeria
------------------
Country name: conventional long form: People's
Democratic Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local short form: Al Jaza'ir
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al
Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
Sha'biyah
Government type: republic
Capital: Algiers
Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular -
wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain
Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna,
Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj
Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes,
Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El
Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia,
Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela,
Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila,
Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran,
Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane,
Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes,
Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset,
Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza,
Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)
National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)
Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22
November 1976; revised 3 November
1988, 23 February 1989, and 28
November 1996
Legal system: socialist, based on French and
Islamic law; judicial review of
legislative acts in ad hoc
Constitutional Council composed of
various public officials, including
several Supreme Court justices; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Abdelaziz
BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister
Ali BENFLIS (since 26 August 2000)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
appointed by the president
elections: president elected by
popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 15 April 1999
(next to be held NA April 2004);
prime minister appointed by the
president
election results: Abdelaziz
BOUTEFLIKA elected president;
percent of vote - Abdelaziz
BOUTEFLIKA over 70%; note - his six
opposing candidates withdrew on the
eve of the election citing electoral
fraud
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the
National People's Assembly or Al-
Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (389
seats - changed from 380 seats in
the 2002 elections; members elected
by popular vote to serve five-year
terms) and the Council of Nations
(144 seats; one-third of the members
appointed by the president, two-
thirds elected by indirect vote;
members serve six-year terms; the
constitution requires half the
council to be renewed every three
years)
elections: National People's
Assembly - last held 30 May 2002
(next to be held NA 2007); Council
of Nations - last held 30 December
2000 (next to be held NA 2003)
election results: National People's
Assembly - percent of vote by party
- NA%; seats by party - FLN 199, RND
48, MRN 43, MSP 38, PT 21, FNA 8,
Nahda 1, PRA 1, MEN 1, independents
29; Council of Nations - percent of
vote by party - NA%; seats by party
- RND 79, FLN 12, FFS 4, MSP 1
(remaining 48 seats appointed by the
president, party breakdown NA)
Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders: Algerian National Front or FNA
[Moussa TOUATI]; Democratic National
Rally or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA,
chairman]; Islamic Salvation Front
or FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali
BELHADJ and Dr. Abassi MADANI
(imprisoned), Rabeh KEBIR (self-
exile in Germany)]; Movement of a
Peaceful Society or MSP [Mahfoud
NAHNAH, chairman]; National Entente
Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA];
National Liberation Front or FLN
[Boualem BENHAMOUDA, secretary
general]; National Reform Movement
or MRN [Abdellah DJABALLAH];
National Renewal Party or PRA
[leader NA]; Progressive Republican
Party [Khadir DRISS]; Rally for
Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said
SAADI, secretary general];
Renaissance Movement or EnNahda
Movement [Lahbib ADAMI]; Social
Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL];
Socialist Forces Front or FFS
[Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general
(self-exile in Switzerland)]; Union
for Democracy and Liberty [Mouley
BOUKHALAFA]; Workers Party or PT
[Louisa HANOUN]
note: a law banning political
parties based on religion was
enacted in March 1997
Political pressure groups and NA
leaders:
International organization ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU,
participation: CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-
77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC,
OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW,
OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Idriss
JAZAIRY
chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW,
Washington, DC 20008
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Janet
US: A. SANDERSON
embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-
Ibrahimi, Algiers
mailing address: B. P. Box 549,
Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers
telephone: [213] (21) 69-11-86, 69-
12-55, 69-18-54, 69-38-75
FAX: [213] (21) 69-39-79
Flag description: two equal vertical bands of green
(hoist side) and white; a red, five-
pointed star within a red crescent
centered over the two-color
boundary; the crescent, star, and
color green are traditional symbols
of Islam (the state religion)

Economy Algeria
---------------
Economy - overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the
backbone of the economy, accounting
for roughly 60% of budget revenues,
30% of GDP, and over 95% of export
earnings. Algeria has the fifth-
largest reserves of natural gas in
the world and is the second largest
gas exporter; it ranks 14th in oil
reserves. Algeria's financial and
economic indicators improved during
the mid-1990s, in part because of
policy reforms supported by the IMF
and debt rescheduling from the Paris
Club. Algeria's finances in 2000 and
2001 benefited from the temporary
spike in oil prices and the
government's tight fiscal policy,
leading to a large increase in the
trade surplus, record highs in
foreign exchange reserves, and
reduction in foreign debt. The
government's continued efforts to
diversify the economy by attracting
foreign and domestic investment
outside the energy sector has had
little success in reducing high
unemployment and improving living
standards. In 2001, the government
signed an Association Treaty with
the European Union that will
eventually lower tariffs and
increase trade.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $177
billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.8% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,600
(2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 17%
industry: 33%
services: 50% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line: 23% (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 4.4%
percentage share: highest 10%: 25% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini 35.3 (1995)
index:
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2001 est.)
Labor force: 9.4 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: government 29%, agriculture 25%,
construction and public works 15%,
industry 11%, other 20% (1996 est.)
Unemployment rate: 34% (2001 est.)
Budget: revenues: $20.3 billion
expenditures: $18.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of
$5.8 billion (2001 est.)
Industries: petroleum, natural gas, light
industries, mining, electrical,
petrochemical, food processing
Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production: 23.556 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.58%
hydro: 0.42%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption: 21.847 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 210 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 150 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives,
citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle
Exports: $20 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum, natural gas, and
petroleum products 97%
Exports - partners: Italy 23%, Spain 13%, US 13%, France
11%, Brazil 7%, (2000)
Imports: $1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital goods, food and beverages,
consumer goods
Imports - partners: France 29%, US 9%, Italy 8%, Germany
6%, Spain 5% (2000)
Debt - external: $24.7 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $100 million (1999 est.)
Currency: Algerian dinar (DZD)
Currency code: DZD
Exchange rates: Algerian dinars per US dollar -
77.889 (January 2002), 77.215
(2001), 75.260 (2000), 66.574
(1999), 58.739 (1998), 57.707 (1997)
Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Algeria
----------------------
Telephones - main lines in use: 2.3 million (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 33,500 (1999)
Telephone system: general assessment: telephone
density in Algeria is very low, not
exceeding five telephones per 100
persons; the number of fixed main
lines increased in the last few
years to a little more than
2,000,000, but only about two-thirds
of these have subscribers; much of
the infrastructure is outdated and
inefficient
domestic: good service in north but
sparse in south; domestic satellite
system with 12 earth stations (20
additional domestic earth stations
are planned)
international: 5 submarine cables;
microwave radio relay to Italy,
France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia;
coaxial cable to Morocco and
Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel;
satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1
Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1
Arabsat (1998)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)
Radios: 7.1 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)
Televisions: 3.1 million (1997)
Internet country code: .dz
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
Internet users: 180,000 (2001)

Transportation Algeria
----------------------
Railways: total: 4,820 km
standard gauge: 3,664 km 1.435-
m gauge (301 km electrified; 215 km
double-track)
narrow gauge: 1,156 km 1.055-m gauge
(1999 est.)
Highways: total: 104,000 km
paved: 71,656 km (including 640 km
of expressways)
unpaved: 32,344 km (1996 est.)
Waterways: none
Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum
products 298 km; natural gas 2,948
km
Ports and harbors: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni
Saf, Dellys, Djendjene, Ghazaouet,
Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda,
Tenes
Merchant marine: total: 73 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 903,944 GRT/1,051,433 DWT
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 25,
chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas 10,
petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off
12, short-sea passenger 4,
specialized tanker 1, includes some
foreign-owned ships registered here
as a flag of convenience: United
Arab Emirates 2 (2002 est.)
Airports: 136 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 52
over 3,047 m: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 84
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
under 914 m: 18 (2001)
914 to 1,523 m: 40
Heliports: 1 (2001)

Military Algeria
----------------
Military branches: Peoples National Army (ANP),
Algerian National Navy (ANN), Air
Force, Territorial Air Defense,
National Gendarmerie
Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 9,016,048 (2002
est.)
Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 5,513,317 (2002
service: est.)
Military manpower - reaching males: 388,939 (2002 est.)
military age annually:
Military expenditures - dollar $1.87 billion (FY99)
figure:
Military expenditures - percent of 4.1% (FY99)
GDP:

Transnational Issues Algeria
----------------------------
Disputes - international: part of southeastern region claimed
by Libya; Algeria supports exiled
West Saharan Polisario Front and
rejects Moroccan administration of
Western Sahara
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