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Introduction Tajikistan
Background: Tajikistan has experienced three
changes in government and a five-
year civil war since it gained
independence in 1991 from the USSR.
A peace agreement among rival
factions was signed in 1997, and
implemented in 2000. The central
government's less than total control
over some areas of the country has
forced it to compromise and forge
alliances among factions. Open
skirmishes in the streets are less
of a problem than they were during
the war five years ago. Attention by
the international community in the
wake of the war in Afghanistan may
bring increased economic development
assistance, which would create jobs
and increase stability in the long
term. Tajikistan is in the beginning
stages of seeking World Trade
Organization membership and has been
approved to join NATO's Partnership
for Peace.

Geography Tajikistan
Location: Central Asia, west of China
Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 71 00 E
Map references: Asia
Area: total: 143,100 sq km
water: 400 sq km
land: 142,700 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries: total: 3,651 km
border countries: Afghanistan 1,206
km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km,
Uzbekistan 1,161 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: midlatitude continental, hot
summers, mild winters; semiarid to
polar in Pamir Mountains
Terrain: Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate
landscape; western Fergana Valley in
north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys
in southwest
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo)
300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni
7,495 m
Natural resources: hydropower, some petroleum, uranium,
mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc,
antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land use: arable land: 5.41%
permanent crops: 0.92%
other: 93.67% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: 7,200 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: earthquakes and floods
Environment - current issues: inadequate sanitation facilities;
increasing levels of soil salinity;
industrial pollution; excessive
pesticides; part of the basin of the
shrinking Aral Sea suffers from
severe overutilization of available
water for irrigation and associated
Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
agreements: Change, Desertification,
Environmental Modification, Ozone
Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of
the selected agreements
Geography - note: landlocked; mountainous region
dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in
the north and the Pamirs in the
southeast; highest point, Qullai
Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism
Peak), was the tallest mountain in
the former USSR

People Tajikistan
Population: 6,719,567 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.4% (male 1,370,314;
female 1,346,465)
15-64 years: 54.9% (male 1,835,573;
female 1,854,677)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male
136,033; female 176,505) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.12% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 32.99 births/1,000 population (2002
Death rate: 8.51 deaths/1,000 population (2002
Net migration rate: -3.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population
(2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/
total population: 0.99 male(s)/
female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 114.77 deaths/1,000 live births
(2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.28 years
female: 67.46 years (2002 est.)
male: 61.24 years
Total fertility rate: 4.23 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ less than 100 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
Nationality: noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
Ethnic groups: Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5%
(declining because of emigration),
other 6.6%
Religions: Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi'a Muslim 5%
Languages: Tajik (official), Russian widely
used in government and business
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97% (1989 est.)

Government Tajikistan
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local short form: none
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
Government type: republic
Capital: Dushanbe
Administrative divisions: 2 provinces (viloyatho, singular -
viloyat) and 1 autonomous province*
(viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati
Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon*
(Khorugh), Viloyati Khatlon
(Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Sughd
note: the administrative center name
follows in parentheses
Independence: 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day (or National Day),
9 September (1991)
Constitution: 6 November 1994
Legal system: based on civil law system; no
judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Emomali
RAHMONOV (since 6 November 1994;
head of state and Supreme Assembly
chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister
Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
appointed by the president, approved
by the Supreme Assembly
election results: Emomali RAHMONOV
elected president; percent of vote -
Emomali RAHMONOV 97%, Davlat USMON
elections: president elected by
popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 6 November 1999
(next to be held NA 2006); prime
minister appointed by the president
Legislative branch: bicameral Supreme Assembly or
Majlisi Oli consists of the Assembly
of Representatives (lower chamber)
or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats;
members are elected by popular vote
to serve five-year terms) and the
National Assembly (upper chamber) or
Majlisi Milliy (33 seats; members
are indirectly elected, 25 selected
by local deputies, 8 appointed by
the president; all serve five-year
election results: Assembly of
Representatives - percent of vote by
party - PDPT 65%, Communist Party
20%, Islamic Rebirth Party 7.5%,
other 7.5%; seats by party - NA;
National Assembly - percent of vote
by party - NA%; seats by party - NA
elections: last held 27 February and
12 March 2000 for the Assembly of
Representatives (next to be held NA
2005) and 23 March 2000 for the
National Assembly (next to be held
NA 2005)
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed
by the president)
Political parties and leaders: Congress of People's Unity of
Tajikistan [Saiffidin TURAYEV];
Democratic Party or TDP [Mahmadruzi
ISKANDAROV, chairman]; Islamic
Rebirth Party [Muhammadsharif
HIMMAT-ZODA, chairman]; Party of
Justice and Development [Rahmatullo
ZOIROV]; People's Democratic Party
of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali
RAHMONOV]; Socialist Party [leader
NA]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT
[Shodi SHABDOLOV]; Adolatho
"Justice" Party [Abdurahmon KARIMOV,
Political pressure groups and there are three unregistered
leaders: political parties with 1,000 or more
members: Progressive Party [Suton
QUVVATOV]; Social Democratic Party
[Rahmatullo ZOIROV]; Unity Party
[Hikmatuko SAIDOV]
International organization AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE,
participation: ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
Diplomatic representation in the US: Tajikistan does not have an embassy
in the US, but does have a permanent
mission to the UN: address - 136
East 67th Street, New York, NY
10021, telephone - [1] (212) 472-
7645, FAX - [1] (212) 628-0252;
permanent representative to the UN
is Rashid ALIMOV
Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador
US: Franklin P. "Pancho" HUDDLE, Jr.
embassy: 10 Pavlova Street,
Dushanbe, Tajikistan 734003; note -
the embassy in Dushanbe is not yet
fully operational; most business is
still handled in Almaty at 531
Sayfullin Street, Almaty,
Kazakhstan, telephone 7-3272-58-79-
61, FAX 7-3272-58079-68
mailing address: use embassy street
telephone: 992-372-21-03-48, 03-50,
FAX: 992-372-24-15-62
Flag description: three horizontal stripes of red
(top), a wider stripe of white, and
green; a gold crown surmounted by
seven gold, five-pointed stars is
located in the center of the white

Economy Tajikistan
Economy - overview: Tajikistan has the lowest per capita
GDP among the 15 former Soviet
republics. Cotton is the most
important crop. Mineral resources,
varied but limited in amount,
include silver, gold, uranium, and
tungsten. Industry consists only of
a large aluminum plant, hydropower
facilities, and small obsolete
factories mostly in light industry
and food processing. The civil war
(1992-97) severely damaged the
already weak economic infrastructure
and caused a sharp decline in
industrial and agricultural
production. Even though 80% of its
people continue to live in abject
poverty, Tajikistan has experienced
strong economic growth since 1997.
Continued privatization of medium
and large state-owned enterprises
will further increase productivity.
Tajikistan's economic situation,
however, remains fragile due to
uneven implementation of structural
reforms, weak governance, and the
external debt burden. Servicing of
the debt, owed principally to Russia
and Uzbekistan, could require as
much as 50% of government revenues
in 2002, thus limiting the nation's
ability to meet pressing development
GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.5
billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 8.3% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,140
(2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 19%
industry: 25%
services: 56% (2000)
Population below poverty line: 80% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 33% (2001 est.)
Labor force: 3.187 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 67.2%, industry 7.5%,
services 25.3% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate: 20% (2001 est.)
Budget: revenues: $146 million
expenditures: $196 million,
including capital expenditures of
$NA (2000 est.)
Industries: aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and
fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil,
metal-cutting machine tools,
refrigerators and freezers
Industrial production growth rate: 10.3% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production: 14.245 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 2%
hydro: 98%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption: 12.539 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 3.909 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 3.2 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, fruits, grapes,
vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Exports: $640 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities: aluminum, electricity, cotton,
fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partners: Europe 43%, Russia 30%, Uzbekistan
13% (2000)
Imports: $700 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities: electricity, petroleum products,
aluminum oxide, machinery and
equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Uzbekistan 27%, Russia 16%, Europe
12% (2000)
Debt - external: $1.23 billion (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $60.7 million from US (2001)
Currency: somoni
Currency code: SM
Exchange rates: Tajikistani somoni per US dollar -
2.55 (January 2002), 2.2 (January
2001), 1550 (January 2000), 998
(January 1999), 350 (January 1997),
284 (January 1996)
note: the new unit of exchange was
introduced on 30 October 2000, with
one somoni equal to 1,000 of the old
Tajikistani rubles
Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Tajikistan
Telephones - main lines in use: 363,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,500 (1997)
Telephone system: general assessment: poorly developed
and not well maintained; many towns
are not reached by the national
domestic: cable and microwave radio
international: linked by cable and
microwave radio relay to other CIS
republics and by leased connections
to the Moscow international gateway
switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat
to international gateway switch in
Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth
stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat
Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 7, shortwave 2 (2001)
Radios: 1.291 million (1991)
Television broadcast stations: 13 (2001)
Televisions: 820,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .tj
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (2001)
Internet users: 2,000 (2000)

Transportation Tajikistan
Railways: total: 482 km
broad gauge: 482 km 1.520-m gauge
note: includes only lines in common
carrier service; lines dedicated to
particular industries are excluded
Highways: total: 29,900 km
paved: 21,400 km (includes some all-
weather gravel-surfaced roads)
unpaved: 8,500 km (these roads are
made of unstabilized earth and are
difficult to negotiate in wet
weather) (1990)
Waterways: none
Pipelines: natural gas 400 km (1992)
Ports and harbors: none
Airports: 53 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 51
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 36 (2001)

Military Tajikistan
Military branches: Army, Air Force and Air Defense
Force, Presidential National Guard,
Security Forces (internal and border
Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,646,278 (2002
Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,349,505 (2002
service: est.)
Military manpower - reaching males: 72,056 (2002 est.)
military age annually:
Military expenditures - dollar $35.4 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of 3.9% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Tajikistan
Disputes - international: the undemarcated northern and
western border with Uzbekistan is
mined in many sections; continues to
maintain a territorial dispute with
Kyrgyzstan in Isfara Valley area;
ongoing talks with China have failed
to resolve the longstanding dispute
over the indefinite boundary;
Kazakhstan, Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan wrestle
with sharing limited water resources
and the regional environmental
degradation caused by the shrinking
of the Aral Sea
Illicit drugs: major transshipment zone for heroin
and opiates from Afghanistan going
to Russia and Western Europe;
limited illicit cultivation of
narcotics crops, mostly for domestic
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