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Introduction Turkey
Background: Turkey was created in 1923 from the
Turkish remnants of the Ottoman
Empire. Soon thereafter the country
instituted secular laws to replace
traditional religious fiats. In 1945
Turkey joined the UN and in 1952 it
became a member of NATO. Turkey
occupied the northern portion of
Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek
takeover of the island; relations
between the two countries remain
strained but have begun to improve
over the past three years. In 1984,
the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK),
a Marxist-Leninist, separatist
group, initiated an insurgency in
Southeast Turkey, often using
terrorist tactics to try to attain
its goal of an independent
Kurdistan. The group - whose leader,
Abdullah OCALAN, was captured in
Kenya in February 1999 and sentenced
to death by a Turkish court - has
observed a unilateral cease-fire
since September 1999, although there
have been occasional clashes between
Turkish military units and some of
the 4,000-5,000 armed PKK militants,
most of whom currently are encamped
in northern Iraq. The PKK changed
its name to the Kurdistan Freedom
and Democracy Congress (KADEK) in
April 2002.

Geography Turkey
Location: southeastern Europe and southwestern
Asia (that portion of Turkey west of
the Bosporus is geographically part
of Europe), bordering the Black Sea,
between Bulgaria and Georgia, and
bordering the Aegean Sea and the
Mediterranean Sea, between Greece
and Syria
Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 35 00 E
Map references: Middle East
Area: total: 780,580 sq km
water: 9,820 sq km
land: 770,760 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries: total: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km,
Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km,
Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran
499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km
Coastline: 7,200 km
Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: in Black
Sea only: to the maritime boundary
agreed upon with the former USSR
territorial sea: 6 NM in the Aegean
Sea; 12 NM in Black Sea and in
Mediterranean Sea
Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with
mild, wet winters; harsher in
Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal
plain; high central plateau
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury,
copper, borate, sulfur, iron ore,
arable land, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 34.53%
permanent crops: 3.36%
other: 62.11% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: 42,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: very severe earthquakes, especially
in northern Turkey, along an arc
extending from the Sea of Marmara to
Lake Van
Environment - current issues: water pollution from dumping of
chemicals and detergents; air
pollution, particularly in urban
areas; deforestation; concern for
oil spills from increasing Bosporus
ship traffic
Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic
agreements: Treaty, Biodiversity,
Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-
Environmental Protocol,
Environmental Modification
Geography - note: strategic location controlling the
Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of
Marmara, Dardanelles) that link
Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat,
the legendary landing place of
Noah's Ark, is in the far eastern
portion of the country

People Turkey
Population: 67,308,928 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.8% (male 9,520,030;
female 9,178,423)
15-64 years: 65.9% (male 22,552,253;
female 21,827,002)
65 years and over: 6.3% (male
1,946,523; female 2,284,697) (2002
Population growth rate: 1.2% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 17.95 births/1,000 population (2002
Death rate: 5.95 deaths/1,000 population (2002
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/
total population: 1.02 male(s)/
female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 45.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.52 years
female: 74.01 years (2002 est.)
male: 69.15 years
Total fertility rate: 2.07 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish
Ethnic groups: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20%
Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other
0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic,
Armenian, Greek
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
and write
total population: 85%
male: 94%
female: 77% (2000)

Government Turkey
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti

local short form: Turkiye
Government type: republican parliamentary democracy
Capital: Ankara
Administrative divisions: 81 provinces (iller, singular - il);
Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri,
Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya,
Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir,
Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik,
Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa,
Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli,
Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig,
Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir,
Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane,
Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Igdir,
Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir,
Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman,
Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis,
Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir,
Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya,
Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus,
Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye,
Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa,
Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas,
Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli,
Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to
the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday: Independence Day, 29 October (1923)
Constitution: 7 November 1982
Legal system: derived from various European
continental legal systems; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Ahmet
Necdet SEZER (since 16 May 2000)
elections: president elected by the
National Assembly for a seven-year
term; election last held 5 May 2000
(next to be held NA May 2007); prime
minister and deputy prime ministers
appointed by the president
note: a National Security Council
serves as an advisory body to the
president and the cabinet
cabinet: Council of Ministers
appointed by the president on the
nomination of the prime minister
head of government: Prime Minister
Bulent ECEVIT (since 11 January
election results: Ahmed Necdet SEZER
elected president on the third
ballot; percent of National Assembly
vote - 60%
note: president must have a two-
thirds majority of the National
Assembly on the first two ballots
and a simple majority on the third
Legislative branch: unicameral Grand National Assembly
of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet
Meclisi (550 seats; members are
elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 18 April 1999
(next to be held NA 2004)
election results: percent of vote by
party - NA%; seats by party - DSP
136, MHP 130, FP 110, DYP 86, ANAP
88; note - as of 11 January 2002
seating was DSP 129, MHP 127, DYP
84, ANAP 79, AK 53, Saadet 48,
independents 20, vacancies 10
Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (judges are
appointed by the president); Court
of Appeals (judges are elected by
the Supreme Council of Judges and
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Left Party or DSP [Bulent
ECEVIT]; Justice and Development
Party or AK [Recep Tayip ERDOGAN];
Motherland Party or ANAP [Mesut
YILMAZ]; Nationalist Action Party or
MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]; Saadet Party
[Recai KUTAN]; note - KUTAN was head
of the Virtue Party or FP which was
banned by Turkey's Constitutional
Court in June 2001; Socialist
Democratic Party or TDP [Sema
PISKINSUT]; True Path Party or DYP
[Tansu CILLER]
Political pressure groups and Confederation of Revolutionary
leaders: Workers Unions or DISK [Ridvan
BUDAK]; Independent Industrialists
and Businessmen's Association or
MUSIAD [Erol YARAR]; Moral Rights
Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim
USLU]; Turkish Industrialists' and
Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD
[Muharrem KAYHAN]; Turkish
Confederation of Employers' Unions
or TISK [Refik BAYDUR]; Turkish
Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is
[Bayram MERAL]; Turkish Union of
Chambers of Commerce and Commodity
Exchanges or TOBB [Fuat MIRAS]
International organization AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC,
participation: CCC, CE, CERN (observer), EAPC,
(applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
(observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE,
(associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dr.
Osman Faruk LOGOGLU
FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744
consulate(s) general: Chicago,
Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue
NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Robert
embassy: Ataturk Bulvari 110, Ankara

mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000,
APO AE 09823
telephone: [90] (312) 468-6110
FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana
Flag description: red with a vertical white crescent
(the closed portion is toward the
hoist side) and white five-pointed
star centered just outside the
crescent opening

Economy Turkey
Economy - overview: Turkey's dynamic economy is a
complex mix of modern industry and
commerce along with a traditional
agriculture sector that in 2001
still accounted for 40% of
employment. It has a strong and
rapidly growing private sector, yet
the state still plays a major role
in basic industry, banking,
transport, and communication. The
most important industry - and
largest exporter - is textiles and
clothing, which is almost entirely
in private hands. In recent years
the economic situation has been
marked by erratic economic growth
and serious imbalances. Real GNP
growth has exceeded 6% in most
years, but this strong expansion was
interrupted by sharp declines in
output in 1994, 1999, and 2001.
Meanwhile the public sector fiscal
deficit has regularly exceeded 10%
of GDP - due in large part to the
huge burden of interest payments,
which in 2001 accounted for more
than 50% of central government
spending - while inflation has
remained in the high double digit
range. Perhaps because of these
problems, foreign direct investment
in Turkey remains low - less than $1
billion annually. In late 2000 and
early 2001 a growing trade deficit
and serious weaknesses in the
banking sector plunged the economy
into crisis - forcing Ankara to
float the lira and pushing the
country into recession. Prospects
for 2002 are much better, because of
strong financial support from the
IMF, tighter fiscal policy, a major
bank restructuring program, and the
enactment of numerous other economic
GDP: purchasing power parity - $443
billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -6.5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,700
(2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14.5%
industry: 28.4%
services: 57.1% (2000)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.3%
percentage share: highest 10%: 32.3% (1994)
Distribution of family income - Gini 41.5 (1994)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 69% (2001)
Labor force: 23.8 million (2001 3rd quarter)
note: about 1.2 million Turks work
abroad (1999)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 39.7%, services 37.9%,
industry 22.4% (2001 3rd quarter)
Unemployment rate: 10.6% (plus underemployment of 6.1%)
(2001 4th quarter)
Budget: revenues: $42.4 billion
expenditures: $69.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of
$NA (2001)
Industries: textiles, food processing, autos,
mining (coal, chromite, copper,
boron), steel, petroleum,
construction, lumber, paper
Industrial production growth rate: -8.9% (2001)
Electricity - production: 119.18 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 74.09%
hydro: 25.65%
other: 0.26% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption: 114.192 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 437 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 3.791 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: tobacco, cotton, grain, olives,
sugar beets, pulse, citrus;
Exports: $33.8 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
Exports - commodities: apparel 24.8%, foodstuffs 12.8%,
textiles 12.7%, metal manufactures
8.8%, transport equipment 8.5%
Exports - partners: Germany 17.4%, US 10.2%, Italy 7.5%,
UK 7.0%, France 6.1% (2001 est.)
Imports: $39.7 billion (c.i.f., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery 25.4%, chemicals 13.4%,
semi-finished goods 13.7%, fuels
14.0%, transport equipment 12.4%
Imports - partners: Germany 13.3%, Italy 8.6%, Russia
8.4%, US 8.1%, France 5.7%, UK 4.5%
(2001 est.)
Debt - external: $118.8 billion (September 2001)
Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $195 million (1993)
Currency: Turkish lira (TRL)
Currency code: TRL
Exchange rates: Turkish liras per US dollar -
1,223,140 (January 2002), 1,223,140
(2001), 625,219 (2000), 418,783
(1999), 260,724 (1998), 151,865
Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Turkey
Telephones - main lines in use: 19.5 million (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 17.1 million (2001)
Telephone system: general assessment: undergoing rapid
modernization and expansion,
especially with cellular telephones
domestic: additional digital
exchanges are permitting a rapid
increase in subscribers; the
construction of a network of
technologically advanced intercity
trunk lines, using both fiber-optic
cable and digital microwave radio
relay is facilitating communication
between urban centers; remote areas
are reached by a domestic satellite
system; the number of subscribers to
mobile cellular telephone service is
growing rapidly
international: international service
is provided by three submarine
fiber-optic cables in the
Mediterranean and Black Seas,
linking Turkey with Italy, Greece,
Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and
Russia; also by 12 Intelsat earth
stations, and by 328 mobile
satellite terminals in the Inmarsat
and Eutelsat systems (2002)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 107, shortwave 6 (2001)
Radios: 11.3 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 635 (plus 2,934 repeaters) (1995)
Televisions: 20.9 million (1997)
Internet country code: .tr
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 50 (2001)
Internet users: 4 million (2001)

Transportation Turkey
Railways: total: 8,607 km
standard gauge: 8,607 km 1.435-
m gauge (2,131 km electrified)
Highways: total: 382,059 km
paved: 106,976 km (including 1,726
km of expressways)
unpaved: 275,083 km (1999 est.)
Waterways: 1,200 km (approximately)
Pipelines: crude oil 1,738 km; petroleum
products 2,321 km; natural gas 708
Ports and harbors: Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul,
Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Icel
(Mersin), Samsun, Trabzon
Merchant marine: total: 553 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 5,674,099 GRT/9,108,819 DWT

ships by type: bulk 138, cargo 239,
chemical tanker 45, combination bulk
5, combination ore/oil 2, container
27, liquefied gas 6, passenger/cargo
1, petroleum tanker 45, refrigerated
cargo 3, roll on/roll off 27, short-
sea passenger 10, specialized tanker
note: includes some foreign-owned
ships registered here as a flag of
convenience: Belize 1, Cyprus 1,
Denmark 2, Greece 1, Italy 1,
Thailand 1, United Kingdom 11 (2002
Airports: 120 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 86
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 6 (2001)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 34
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 24 (2001)
914 to 1,523 m: 8
Heliports: 6 (2001)

Military Turkey
Military branches: Land Forces, Navy (includes Naval
Air and Naval Infantry), Air Force,
Coast Guard, Gendarmerie
Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 19,219,177 (2002
Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 11,623,675 (2002
service: est.)
Military manpower - reaching males: 674,805 (2002 est.)
military age annually:
Military expenditures - dollar $8.1 billion (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of 4.5% (2002 est.)

Transnational Issues Turkey
Disputes - international: complex maritime, air, and
territorial disputes with Greece in
Aegean Sea; Cyprus question with
Greece; dispute with downstream
riparian states (Syria and Iraq)
over water development plans for the
Tigris and Euphrates rivers;
traditional demands regarding former
Armenian lands in Turkey have
subsided; Turkey is quick to rebuff
any perceived Syrian claim to Hatay
province; border with Armenia
remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
Illicit drugs: key transit route for Southwest
Asian heroin to Western Europe and -
to a far lesser extent the US - via
air, land, and sea routes; major
Turkish, Iranian, and other
international trafficking
organizations operate out of
Istanbul; laboratories to convert
imported morphine base into heroin
are in remote regions of Turkey as
well as near Istanbul; government
maintains strict controls over areas
of legal opium poppy cultivation and
output of poppy straw concentrate
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