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Yugoslavia

 

Yugoslavia
Introduction Yugoslavia
-----------------------
Background: The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and
Slovenes was formed in 1918; its
name was changed to Yugoslavia in
1929. Occupation by Nazi Germany in
1941 was resisted by various
paramilitary bands that fought
themselves as well as the invaders.
The group headed by Marshal TITO
took full control upon German
expulsion in 1945. Although
Communist, his new government
successfully steered its own path
between the Warsaw Pact nations and
the West for the next four and a
half decades. In the early 1990s,
post-TITO Yugoslavia began to
unravel along ethnic lines:
Slovenia, Croatia, and The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia all
declared their independence in 1991;
Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992. The
remaining republics of Serbia and
Montenegro declared a new "Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia" (FRY)in 1992
and, under President Slobodan
MILOSEVIC, Serbia led various
military intervention efforts to
unite Serbs in neighboring republics
into a "Greater Serbia." All of
these efforts were ultimately
unsuccessful. In 1999, massive
expulsions by FRY forces and Serb
paramilitaries of ethnic Albanians
living in Kosovo provoked an
international response, including
the NATO bombing of Serbia and the
stationing of NATO and Russian
peacekeepers in Kosovo. There are
Democratic Opposition of Serbia
(DOS)-led coalitions governing at
the federal and Serbian Republic
levels, implementing a wide-ranging
political and economic reform
program. The governing coalition in
Montenegro is seeking independence
from the Federation. Kosovo has been
governed by the UN Interim
Administration Mission in Kosovo
(UNMIK) since June 1999, under the
authority of UN Security Council
Resolution 1244.

Geography Yugoslavia
--------------------
Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the
Adriatic Sea, between Albania and
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 21 00 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 102,350 sq km
water: 214 sq km
land: 102,136 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kentucky
Land boundaries: total: 2,246 km
border countries: Albania 287 km,
Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km,
Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241
km, Croatia (south) 25 km, Hungary
151 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km
Coastline: 199 km
Maritime claims: NA
Climate: in the north, continental climate
(cold winters and hot, humid summers
with well distributed rainfall);
central portion, continental and
Mediterranean climate; to the south,
Adriatic climate along the coast,
hot, dry summers and autumns and
relatively cold winters with heavy
snowfall inland
Terrain: extremely varied; to the north, rich
fertile plains; to the east,
limestone ranges and basins; to the
southeast, ancient mountains and
hills; to the southwest, extremely
high shoreline with no islands off
the coast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Daravica 2,656 m
Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper,
lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite,
chrome, hydropower, arable land
Land use: arable land: 36.34%
permanent crops: 3.44%
other: 60.22% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: 570 sq km
Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues: pollution of coastal waters from
sewage outlets, especially in
tourist-related areas such as Kotor;
air pollution around Belgrade and
other industrial cities; water
pollution from industrial wastes
dumped into the Sava which flows
into the Danube
Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Climate
agreements: Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:
Biodiversity
Geography - note: controls one of the major land
routes from Western Europe to Turkey
and the Near East; strategic
location along the Adriatic coast

People Yugoslavia
-----------------
Population: 10,656,929
note: all data dealing with
population is subject to
considerable error because of the
dislocations caused by military
action and ethnic cleansing (July
2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 19.6% (male 1,077,581;
female 1,005,379)
15-64 years: 65.3% (male 3,415,929;
female 3,546,410)
65 years and over: 15.1% (male
690,014; female 921,616) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.12% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 12.8 births/1,000 population (2002
est.)
Death rate: 10.59 deaths/1,000 population (2002
est.)
Net migration rate: -3.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population
(2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/
female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/
female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 17.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.72 years
female: 76.89 years (2002 est.)
male: 70.78 years
Total fertility rate: 1.78 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Serb(s); Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Serbian; Montenegrin
Ethnic groups: Serb 62.6%, Albanian 16.5%,
Montenegrin 5%, Hungarian 3.3%,
other 12.6% (1991)
Religions: Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman
Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other
11%
Languages: Serbian 95%, Albanian 5%
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
and write
total population: 93%
male: 97.2%
female: 88.9% (1991)

Government Yugoslavia
---------------------
Country name: conventional long form: Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia
conventional short form: Yugoslavia
local short form: Jugoslavija
local long form: Savezna Republika
Jugoslavija
Government type: republic
Capital: Belgrade
Administrative divisions: 2 republics (republike, singular -
republika); and 2 nominally
autonomous provinces* (autonomn
pokrajine, singular - autonomna
pokrajina); Kosovo*, Montenegro,
Serbia, Vojvodina*
Independence: 27 April 1992 (Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia or FRY formed as self-
proclaimed successor to the
Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia or SFRY)
National holiday: Republic Day, 29 November
Constitution: 27 April 1992
Legal system: based on civil law system
Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18
years of age, universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Vojislav
KOSTUNICA (since 7 October 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister
Dragisa PESIC (since 24 July 2001);
Deputy Prime Minister Miroljub LABUS
(since 25 January 2001)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
elections: president elected by
direct, popular vote for up to two,
four-year terms; election last held
24 September 2000 (next to be held
NA 2004); prime minister appointed
by the president
election results: Vojislav KOSTUNICA
elected president; percent of vote -
Vojislav KOSTUNICA 50.2%, Slobodan
MILOSEVIC 37%
Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or
Savezna Skupstina consists of the
Chamber of Republics or Vece
Republika (40 seats - 20 Serbian, 20
Montenegrin; members distributed on
the basis of party representation in
the republican assemblies to serve
four-year terms; note - the Assembly
passed a new constitutional
amendment calling for direct
elections for the deputies to the
upper chamber) and the Chamber of
Citizens or Vece Gradjana (138 seats
- 108 Serbian with half elected by
constituency majorities and half by
proportional representation, 30
Montenegrin with six elected by
constituency and 24 proportionally;
members serve four-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Republics -
last held 24 September 2000 (next to
be held NA 2004); Chamber of
Citizens - last held 24 September
2000 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: Chamber of
Republics - percent of vote by party
- NA%; seats by party - SNP 19, DOS
10, SPS/JUL 7, SRS 2, SPO 1, SNS 1;
note - seats are filled on a
proportional basis to reflect the
composition of the legislatures of
the republics of Montenegro and
Serbia; since 1998 Serbia has
effectively barred Montenegro from
its constitutional right to delegate
deputies to the Chamber of
Republics; Chamber of Citizens -
percent of vote by party - NA%;
seats by party - DOS 58, SPS/JUL 44,
SNP 28, SRS 5, SNS 2, other 1
Judicial branch: Federal Court or Savezni Sud;
Constitutional Court; judges for
both courts are elected by the
Federal Assembly for nine-year terms
Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or
SVM [Jozsef KASZA]; Civic Alliance
of Serbia or GSS [Goran SVILANOVIC];
Coalition Sandzak [Rasim LJAJIC];
Coalition Sumadija [Branislav
KOVACEVIC]; Democratic Alternative
of DA [Nebojsa COVIC]; Democratic
Center or DC [Dragoljub MICUNOVIC];
Democratic Christian Party of Serbia
of DHSS [Vladan BATIC]; Democratic
League of Kosovo or LDK [Dr. Ibrahim
RUGOVA, president]; Democratic
Opposition of Serbia or DOS [leader
NA]; Democratic Party or DS [Zoran
DJINDJIC]; Democratic Party of
Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA];
Democratic Party of Socialists of
Montenegro or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC];
Movement for a Democratic Serbia or
PDS [Momcilo PERISIC]; New Democracy
or ND [Dusan MIHAJLOVIC]; New Serbia
[Velimir ILIC]; People's Party of
Montenegro or NS [Dragan SOC]; Serb
People's Party or SNS [Bozidar
BOJOVIC]; Serbian Radical Party or
SRS [Vojislav SESELJ]; Serbian
Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk
DRASKOVIC, president]; Serbian
Socialist Party or SPS (former
Communist Party) [Slobodan
MILOSEVIC]; Social Democracy or SD
[Vuk OBRADOVIC]; Social Democratic
Union or SDU [Zarko KORAC];
Socialist People's Party of
Montenegro or SNP [Momir BULATOVIC];
Yugoslav United Left or JUL [Ljubisa
RISTIC]
Political pressure groups and Alliance for the Future of Kosovo or
leaders: AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]; Democratic
League of Kosovo or LDK [Ibrahim
RUGOVA]; Democratic Party of Kosovo
or PDK [Hashim THACI]; Group of 17
Independent Economists or G-17
[leader NA]; National Movement for
the Liberation of Kosovo or LKCK
[Sabit GASHI]; Otpor Student
Resistance Movement [leader NA];
Political Council for Presevo,
Meveda and Bujanovac or PCPMB
[leader NA]; The People's Movement
for Kosovo or LPK [Emrush XHEMAJLI]
International organization ABEDA, BIS, CCC, CE (guest), CEI,
participation: EBRD, FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM,
OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador
(vacant); Charge d'Affaires Ivan
ZIVKOVIC
telephone: [1] (202) 462-6566
chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW,
Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador William
US: D. MONTGOMERY
embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000
Belgrade
telephone: [381] (11) 361-9344
FAX: [381] (11) 646-031
branch office: Pristina
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue
(top), white, and red

Economy Yugoslavia
------------------
Economy - overview: MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the
economy, an extended period of
economic sanctions, and the damage
to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and
industry during the war in Kosovo
has left the economy only half the
size it was in 1990. Since the
ousting of former Federal Yugoslav
President MILOSEVIC in October 2000,
the Democratic Opposition of Serbia
(DOS) coalition government has
implemented stabilization measures
and embarked on an aggressive market
reform program. After renewing its
membership in the IMF in December
2000, Yugoslavia continued to
reintegrate into the international
community by rejoining the World
Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank
for Reconstruction and Development
(EBRD). A World Bank-European
Commission sponsored Donors'
Conference held in June 2001 raised
$1.3 billion for economic
restructuring. An agreement
rescheduling the country's $4.5
billion Paris Club government debts
was concluded in November 2001; it
will write off 66% of the debt and
provide a basis for Belgrade to seek
similar debt relief on its $2.8
billion London Club commercial debt.
The smaller republic of Montenegro
severed its economy from federal
control and from Serbia during the
MILOSEVIC era and continues to
maintain it's own central bank, uses
the euro instead of the Yugoslav
dinar as official currency, collects
customs tariffs, and manages its own
budget. Kosovo, while technically
still part of the Federal Republic
of Yugoslavia according to United
Nations Security Council Resolution
1244, is moving toward local
autonomy under United Nations
Interim Administration Mission in
Kosovo (UNMIK) and is dependent on
the international community for
financial and technical assistance.
The euro and the Yugoslav dinar are
official currencies, and UNMIK
collects taxes and manages the
budget.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $24
billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,250
(2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 26%
industry: 36%
services: 38% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line: 30%
Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 40% (2001 est.)
Labor force: 3 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%,
services NA%
Unemployment rate: 30% (2001)
Budget: revenues: $3.9 billion
expenditures: $4.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of
$NA (2001 est.)
Industries: machine building (aircraft, trucks,
and automobiles; tanks and weapons;
electrical equipment; agricultural
machinery); metallurgy (steel,
aluminum, copper, lead, zinc,
chromium, antimony, bismuth,
cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite,
nonferrous ore, iron ore,
limestone); consumer goods
(textiles, footwear, foodstuffs,
appliances); electronics, petroleum
products, chemicals, and
pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate: 11% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production: 32.984 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 58.75%
hydro: 41.25%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption: 31.546 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 43 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 914 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: cereals, fruits, vegetables,
tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep,
goats
Exports: $2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities: manufactured goods, food and live
animals, raw materials
Exports - partners: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, The
Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, Germany (2001)
Imports: $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment,
fuels and lubricants, manufactured
goods, chemicals, food and live
animals, raw materials
Imports - partners: Germany, Italy, Russia, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia (2001)
Debt - external: $9.2 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $2 billion pledged in 2001
(disbursements to follow for several
years)
Currency: new Yugoslav dinar (YUM); note - in
Montenegro the euro is legal tender;
in Kosovo both the euro and the
Yugoslav dinar are legal (2002)
Currency code: YUM
Exchange rates: new Yugoslav dinars per US dollar -
official rate: 65 (January 2002),
10.0 (December 1998), 5.85 (December
1997), 5.02 (September 1996); black
market rate: 14.5 (December 1998),
8.9 (December 1997)
Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Yugoslavia
-------------------------
Telephones - main lines in use: 2.017 million (1995)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 87,000 (1997)
Telephone system: general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth
station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 113, FM 194, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios: 3.15 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: more than 771 (including 86 strong
stations and 685 low-power stations,
plus 20 repeaters in the principal
networks; also numerous local or
private stations in Serbia and
Vojvodina) (1997)
Televisions: 2.75 million (1997)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 9 (2000)
Internet users: 400,000 (2001)

Transportation Yugoslavia
-------------------------
Railways: total: 4,059 km
standard gauge: 4,059 km 1.435-
m gauge (1,377 km electrified)
note: during the 1999 Kosovo
conflict, the Serbian rail system
suffered significant damage due to
bridge destruction; many rail
bridges have been rebuilt;
Montenegrin rail lines remain intact
(2001)
Highways: total: 48,603 km
paved: 28,822 km (including 560 km
of expressways)
note: because of the 1999 Kosovo
conflict, many road bridges were
destroyed; since the end of the
conflict in June 1999, there has
been an intensive program to either
rebuild bridges or build by-pass
routes (1999)
unpaved: 19,781 km
Waterways: 587 km
note: the Danube River, central
Europe's connection with the Black
Sea, runs through Serbia; since
early 2000, a pontoon bridge,
replacing a destroyed conventional
bridge, has obstructed river traffic
at Novi Sad; the obstruction is
bypassed by a canal system, the
inadequate lock size of which limits
the size of vessels which may pass;
the pontoon bridge can be opened for
large ships but has slowed river
traffic (2001)
Pipelines: crude oil 415 km; petroleum products
130 km; natural gas 2,110 km
Ports and harbors: Bar, Belgrade, Kotor, Novi Sad,
Pancevo, Tivat, Zelenika
Merchant marine: total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 2,437 GRT/400 DWT
ships by type: short-sea passenger 1
(2002 est.)
Airports: 46 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 19
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2001)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 27 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 2 13 (2001)
Heliports: 2 (2001)

Military Yugoslavia
-------------------
Military branches: Army (VJ) (including ground forces
with border troops, naval forces,
air and air defense forces)
Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,589,437 (2002
est.)
Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 2,082,322 (2002
service: est.)
Military manpower - reaching males: 82,542 (2002 est.)
military age annually:
Military expenditures - dollar $654 million (2002)
figure:
Military expenditures - percent of NA%
GDP:

Transnational Issues Yugoslavia
-------------------------------
Disputes - international: Yugoslavia and Bosnia and
Herzegovina have delimited about
half of their boundary, but several
segments, particularly along the
meandering Drina River, remain in
dispute; FYROM-Yugoslavia signed and
ratified a boundary agreement, which
adjusts the former republic
boundaries, with demarcation to
commence in 2002; ethnic Albanians
in Kosovo dispute authority of
agreement which cedes small tracts
of Kosovo to FYROM; Croatia and
Yugoslavia continue to discuss
disputed Prevlaka Peninsula and
control over the Gulf of Kotor
despite imminent UN intention to
withdraw observer mission (UNMOP)
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest
Asian heroin moving to Western
Europe on the Balkan route
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