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Peru Peru:Geography
Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean,
between Chile and Ecuador
Map references: South America
total area: 1,285,220 sq km
land area: 1.28 million sq km
comparative area: slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries: total 6,940 km, Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km,
Chile 160 km, Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km
Coastline: 2,414 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm
territorial sea: 200 nm
International disputes: three sections of the boundary with Ecuador
are in dispute
Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west
Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in
center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron
ore, coal, phosphate, potash
Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 21%
forest and woodland: 55%
other: 21%
Irrigated land: 12,500 sq km (1989 est.)
current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of the slopes of the costa
and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in
Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining
natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild
volcanic activity
international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
ratified - Desertification, Tropical Timber 94
Note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake,
with Bolivia Peru:People
Population: 24,087,372 (July 1995 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (female 4,152,520; male 4,296,293)
15-64 years: 61% (female 7,280,287; male 7,378,227)
65 years and over: 4% (female 535,156; male 444,889) (July 1995 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.8% (1995 est.)
Birth rate: 24.88 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)
Death rate: 6.84 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 52.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.07 years
male: 63.86 years
female: 68.38 years (1995 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3 children born/woman (1995 est.)
noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic divisions: Indian 45%, mestizo (mixed Indian and European
ancestry) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Religions: Roman Catholic
Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara
Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
total population: 82%
male: 92%
female: 74%
Labor force: 8 million (1992)
by occupation: government and other services 44%, agriculture 37%,
industry 19% (1988 est.) Peru:Government
conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
Digraph: PE
Type: republic
Capital: Lima
Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia
constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho,
Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La
Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco,
Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: the 1979 Constitution mandated the creation of regions
(regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous
economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been
constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto),
Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from
Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from
Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los
Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui
(from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from
Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin),
Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed
by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge
with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the
central government and organizational and political difficulties, the
regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993
Constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993
Constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal
Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Constitution: 31 December 1993
Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: President Alberto Kenyo
FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990); election last held 9 April
1995 (next to be held NA 2000); results - Alberto FUJIMORI 64.42%,
Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR 21.80%, Mercedes CABANILLAS 4.11%, other 9.67%
cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
note: Prime Minister Efrain GOLDENBERG Schreiber (since NA February
1994) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of
the president
Legislative branch: unicameral
Congress: elections last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA 2000);
results - C90/NM 52.1% of the total vote, UPP 14%, eleven other
parties 33.9%; seats - (120 total, when installed on 28 July 1995)
C90/NM 67, UPP 17, APRA 8, FIM 6, (CODE)-Pais Posible 5, AP 4, PPC 3,
Renovacion 3, IU 2, OBRAS 2, MIA 1, FRENATRACA 1, (FREPAP) 1
Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)
Political parties and leaders: Change 90-New Majority (C90/NM),
Alberto FUJIMORI; Union for Peru (UPP), Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR;
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), Agustin MANTILLA
Campos; Independent Moralizing Front (FIM), Fernando OLIVERA Vega;
Democratic Coordinator (CODE) - Pais Posible, Jose BARBA Caballero and
Alejandro TOLEDO; Popular Action Party (AP), Raul DIEZ CANSECO;
Popular Christian Party (PPC), Luis BEDOYA Reyes; Renovacion, Rafael
REY Rey; Civic Works Movement (OBRAS), Ricardo BELMONT; United Left
(IU), Agustin HAYA de la TORRE; Independent Agrarian Movement (MIA),
Rolando SALVATERRIE; Peru 2000-National Front of Workers and Peasants
(FRENATRACA), Roger CACARES; Popular Agricultural Front (FREPAP),
Other political or pressure groups: leftist guerrilla groups include
Shining Path, Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned); Tupac Amaru
Revolutionary Movement, Nestor SERPA and Victor POLAY (imprisoned)
Member of: AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT,
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ricardo V. LUNA Mendoza
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
Paterson (New Jersey), and San Francisco
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alvin P. ADAMS, Jr.
embassy: corner of Avenida Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Avenida
Espana, Lima
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO
AA 34031
telephone: [51] (14) 338000
FAX: [51] (14) 316682
Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red
with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms
features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of
quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed
by a green wreath Economy
Overview: The Peruvian economy has become increasingly
market-oriented, with major privatizations completed in 1994 in the
mining and telecommunications industries. In the 1980s the economy
suffered from hyperinflation, declining per capita output, and
mounting external debt. Peru was shut off from IMF and World Bank
support in the mid-1980s because of its huge debt arrears. An
austerity program implemented shortly after the FUJIMORI government
took office in July 1990 contributed to a third consecutive yearly
contraction of economic activity, but the slide came to a halt late
that year, and in 1991 output rose 2.4%. After a burst of inflation as
the austerity program eliminated government price subsidies, monthly
price increases eased to the single-digit level and by December 1991
dropped to the lowest increase since mid-1987. Lima obtained a
financial rescue package from multilateral lenders in September 1991,
although it faced $14 billion in arrears on its external debt. By
working with the IMF and World Bank on new financial conditions and
arrangements, the government succeeded in ending its arrears by March
1993. In 1992, GDP had fallen by 2.8%, in part because a
warmer-than-usual El Nino current resulted in a 30% drop in the fish
catch, but the economy rebounded as strong foreign investment helped
push growth to 6% in 1993 and 8.6% in 1994.
National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $73.6 billion (1994
National product real growth rate: 8.6% (1994 est.)
National product per capita: $3,110 (1994 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1994 est.)
Unemployment rate: 15%; extensive underemployment (1992 est.)
revenues: $2 billion
expenditures: $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $300
million (1992 est.)
Exports: $4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: copper, zinc, fishmeal, crude petroleum and byproducts,
lead, refined silver, coffee, cotton
partners: US 19%, Japan 9%, Italy, Germany
Imports: $5.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum,
iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners: US 21%, Colombia, Argentina, Japan, Germany, Brazil
External debt: $22.4 billion (1994 est.)
Industrial production: NA
capacity: 4,190,000 kW
production: 11.2 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 448 kWh (1993)
Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing,
food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal
Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP, about 35% of labor force;
commercial crops - coffee, cotton, sugarcane; other crops - rice,
wheat, potatoes, plantains, coca; animal products - poultry, red
meats, dairy, wool; not self-sufficient in grain or vegetable oil;
fish catch of 6.9 million metric tons (1990)
Illicit drugs: world's largest coca leaf producer with about 108,600
hectares under cultivation in 1994; source of supply for most of the
world's coca paste and cocaine base; at least 85% of coca cultivation
is for illicit production; most of cocaine base is shipped to
Colombian drug dealers for processing into cocaine for the
international drug market, but exports of finished cocaine are
Economic aid:
recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $4.3 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $577 million
Currency: 1 nuevo sol (S/.) = 100 centimos
Exchange rates: nuevo sol (S/.) per US$1 - 2.20 (February 1995), 2.195
(1994),1.988 (1993), 1.245 (1992), 0.772 (1991), 0.187 (1990)
Fiscal year: calendar year Peru:Transportation
total: 1,801 km
standard gauge: 1,501 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 300 km 0.914-m gauge
total: 69,942 km
paved: 7,459 km
unpaved: improved earth 13,538 km; unimproved earth 48,945 km
Inland waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system
and 208 km of Lago Titicaca
Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km
Ports: Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Iquitos, Matarani, Paita, Pucallpa,
Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Yurimaguas
note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches
of the Amazon and its tributaries
Merchant marine:
total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 90,501 GRT/144,913 DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 6, refrigerated cargo 1
note: in addition, 4 naval tankers and 1 naval cargo are sometimes
used commercially
total: 236
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 6
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 16
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 5
with paved runways under 914 m: 97
with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 21
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 77 Peru:Communications
Telephone system: 544,000 telephones; fairly adequate for most
local: NA
intercity: nationwide microwave radio relay system and 12 domestic
satellite links
international: 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations
broadcast stations: AM 273, FM 0, shortwave 144
radios: NA
broadcast stations: 140
televisions: NA Peru:Defense Forces
Branches: Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru),
Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru), National Police
Manpower availability: males age 15-49 6,369,157; males fit for
military service 4,300,772; males reach military age (20) annually
251,798 (1995 est.)
Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $810 million, about
2.7% of GDP (1994)
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