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ZA ZI

Zimbabwe

 

Zimbabwe Zimbabwe:Geography
Location: Southern Africa, northeast of Botswana
Map references: Africa
Area:
total area: 390,580 sq km
land area: 386,670 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Montana
Land boundaries: total 3,066 km, Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km,
South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none; landlocked
International disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia
is in disagreement
Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to
March)
Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld);
mountains in east
Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper,
iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
Land use:
arable land: 7.25%
permanent crops: 0.25% (coffee is a permanent crop)
meadows and pastures: 12.5%
forest and woodland: 49%
other: 31%
Irrigated land: 2,250 sq km (1993 est.)
Environment:
current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and
water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest
concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly
reduced by poaching
natural hazards: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed,
but not ratified - Desertification
Note: landlocked Zimbabwe:People
Population: 11,139,961 (July 1995 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (female 2,588,193; male 2,617,485)
15-64 years: 51% (female 2,915,697; male 2,723,511)
65 years and over: 2% (female 151,635; male 143,440) (July 1995 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.78% (1995 est.)
Birth rate: 36.35 births/1,000 population (1995 est.)
Death rate: 18.54 deaths/1,000 population (1995 est.)
Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (1995 est.)
note: following the settlement of hostilities in Mozambique in 1992,
refugees from the fighting there began to return to their homes; this
process continues at a lesser rate in 1995; there is a small but
steady flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa in search of better paid
employment
Infant mortality rate: 72.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1995 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 41.35 years
male: 39.73 years
female: 43.01 years (1995 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.93 children born/woman (1995 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Zimbabwean(s)
adjective: Zimbabwean
Ethnic divisions: African 98% (Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other 11%),
white 1%, mixed and Asian 1%
Religions: syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%,
Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%
Languages: English (official), Shona, Sindebele
Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
total population: 78%
male: 84%
female: 72%
Labor force: 3.1 million
by occupation: agriculture 74%, transport and services 16%, mining,
manufacturing, construction 10% (1987) Zimbabwe:Government
Names:
conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe
conventional short form: Zimbabwe
former: Southern Rhodesia
Digraph: ZI
Type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: Harare
Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Manicaland, Mashonaland
Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo (Victoria),
Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands
Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)
Constitution: 21 December 1979
Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state and head of government: Executive President Robert
Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice President Simon
Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice President Joshua M.
NKOMO (since 6 August 1990); election last held 28-30 March 1990 (next
to be held NA March 1996); results - Robert MUGABE 78.3%, Edgar TEKERE
21.7%
cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president; responsible to
Parliament
Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament: elections last held 8-9 April 1995 (next to be held NA
March 2000); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (150
total, 120 elected) ZANU-PF 118, ZANU-S 2
Judicial branch: Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders: Zimbabwe African National
Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), Robert MUGABE; Zimbabwe African
National Union-Sithole (ZANU-S), Ndabaningi SITHOLE; Zimbabwe Unity
Movement (ZUM), Edgar TEKERE; Democratic Party (DP), Emmanuel MAGOCHE;
Forum Party of Zimbabwe, Enock DUMBUTSHENA; United Parties, Abel
MUZOREWA
Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-15, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, PCA, SADC, UN,
UNAMIR, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Amos Bernard Muvengwa MIDZI
chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100
FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Johnny CARSON
embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
mailing address: P. O. Box 3340, Harare
telephone: [263] (4) 794521
FAX: [263] (4) 796488
Flag: seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red,
yellow, and green with a white equilateral triangle edged in black
based on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a
red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle Economy
Overview: Agriculture employs three-fourths of the labor force and
supplies almost 40% of exports. The manufacturing sector, based on
agriculture and mining, produces a variety of goods and contributes
35% to GDP. Mining accounts for only 5% of both GDP and employment,
but minerals and metals account for about 40% of exports. Severe
drought caused GDP to drop 8% in 1992, with growth rebounding to 2% in
1993 and 3.5% in 1994. Despite the lingering effects of the drought on
economic and social conditions, the government is continuing to push
its IMF/World Bank structural adjustment program aimed at encouraging
exports and foreign investment.
National product: GDP - purchasing power parity - $17.4 billion (1994
est.)
National product real growth rate: 3.5% (1994 est.)
National product per capita: $1,580 (1994 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22% (December 1994 est.)
Unemployment rate: at least 45% (1994 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $1.7 billion
expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $253
million (FY92/93)
Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: agricultural 35% (tobacco 30%, other 5%), manufactures
25%, gold 12%, ferrochrome 10%, textiles 8% (1992)
partners: UK 14%, Germany 11%, South Africa 10%, Japan 7%, US 5%
(1991)
Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 41%, other
manufactures 23%, chemicals 16%, fuels 12% (1991)
partners: South Africa 25%, UK 15%, Germany 9%, US 6%, Japan 5% (1991)
External debt: $3.5 billion (December 1992 est.)
Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (1992); accounts for 35% of
GDP
Electricity:
capacity: 2,040,000 kW
production: 9 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 913 kWh (1993)
Industries: mining, steel, clothing and footwear, chemicals,
foodstuffs, fertilizer, beverage, transportation equipment, wood
products
Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP; 40% of land area divided into
4,500 large commercial farms and 42% in communal lands; crops - corn
(food staple), cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts;
livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; self-sufficient in food
Economic aid: NA
Currency: 1 Zimbabwean dollar (Z$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1 - 8.3752 (January
1995), 8.1500 (1994), 6.4725 (1993), 5.1046 (1992), 3.4282 (1991),
2.4480 (1990)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June Zimbabwe:Transportation
Railroads:
total: 2,745 km
narrow gauge: 2,745 km 1.067-m gauge (355 km electrified; 42 km double
track)
Highways:
total: 85,237 km
paved: 15,800 km
unpaved: crushed stone, gravel, stabilized earth 39,090 km; improved
earth 23,097 km; unimproved earth 7,250 km
Inland waterways: Lake Kariba is a potential line of communication
Pipelines: petroleum products 212 km
Ports: Binga, Kariba
Airports:
total: 471
with paved runways over 3,047 m: 3
with paved runways 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 13
with paved runways under 914 m: 222
with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 2
with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 223 Zimbabwe:Communications
Telephone system: 247,000 telephones; system was once one of the best
in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance
local: NA
intercity: consists of microwave links, open-wire lines, and radio
communications stations
international: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station
Radio:
broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 18, shortwave 0
radios: NA
Television:
broadcast stations: 8
televisions: NA Zimbabwe:Defense Forces
Branches: Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
Republic Police (includes Police Support Unit, Paramilitary Police)
Manpower availability: males age 15-49 2,435,931; males fit for
military service 1,514,068 (1995 est.)
Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $175 million, 3.1% of
GDP (FY94/95)
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