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Introduction Germany
Background: As Europe's largest economy and most
populous nation, Germany remains a
key member of the continent's
economic, political, and defense
organizations. European power
struggles immersed the country in
two devastating World Wars in the
first half of the 20th century and
left the country occupied by the
victorious Allied powers of the US,
UK, France, and the Soviet Union in
1945. With the advent of the Cold
War, two German states were formed
in 1949: the western Federal
Republic of Germany (FRG) and the
eastern German Democratic Republic
(GDR). The democratic FRG embedded
itself in key Western economic and
security organizations, the EC,
which became the EU, and NATO, while
the communist GDR was on the front
line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact.
The decline of the USSR and the end
of the Cold War allowed for German
unification in 1990. Since then
Germany has expended considerable
funds to bring eastern productivity
and wages up to western standards.
In January 2002, Germany and 11
other EU countries introduced a
common European currency, the euro.

Geography Germany
Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic
Sea and the North Sea, between the
Netherlands and Poland, south of
Geographic coordinates: 51 00 N, 9 00 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 357,021 sq km
water: 7,798 sq km
land: 349,223 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries: total: 3,621 km
border countries: Austria 784 km,
Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646
km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km,
Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577
km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334
Coastline: 2,389 km
Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to
the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy,
wet winters and summers; occasional
warm foehn wind
Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in
center, Bavarian Alps in south
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Freepsum Lake -2 m
highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber,
lignite, uranium, copper, natural
gas, salt, nickel, arable land
Land use: arable land: 33.88%
permanent crops: 0.65%
other: 65.47% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: 4,850 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: flooding
Environment - current issues: emissions from coal-burning
utilities and industries contribute
to air pollution; acid rain,
resulting from sulfur dioxide
emissions, is damaging forests;
pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw
sewage and industrial effluents from
rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous
waste disposal; government
established a mechanism for ending
the use of nuclear power over the
next 15 years; government working to
meet EU commitment to identify
nature preservation areas in line
with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and
Habitat directive
Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air
agreements: Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-
Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-
Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-
Marine Living Resources, Antarctic
Seals, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands,
signed, but not ratified: Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic
Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto
Geography - note: strategic location on North European
Plain and along the entrance to the
Baltic Sea

People Germany
Population: 83,251,851 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.4% (male 6,568,699;
female 6,227,148)
15-64 years: 67.6% (male 28,606,964;
female 27,695,539)
65 years and over: 17% (male
5,546,140; female 8,607,361) (2002
Population growth rate: 0.26% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 8.99 births/1,000 population (2002
Death rate: 10.36 deaths/1,000 population (2002
Net migration rate: 3.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population
(2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/
total population: 0.96 male(s)/
female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 4.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.78 years
female: 81.09 years (2002 est.)
male: 74.64 years
Total fertility rate: 1.39 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 37,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 600 (1999 est.)
Nationality: noun: German(s)
adjective: German
Ethnic groups: German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other
6.1% (made up largely of Serbo-
Croatian, Italian, Russian, Greek,
Polish, Spanish)
Religions: Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%,
Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other
Languages: German
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
and write
total population: 99% (1977 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

Government Germany
Country name: conventional long form: Federal
Republic of Germany
conventional short form: Germany
local short form: Deutschland
former: German Empire, German
Republic, German Reich
local long form: Bundesrepublik
Government type: federal republic
Capital: Berlin
Administrative divisions: 16 states (Laender, singular -
Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern,
Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen,
Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-
Vorpommern, Niedersachsen,
Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-
Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-
Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein,
Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire
unification); divided into four
zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR,
and later, France) in 1945 following
World War II; Federal Republic of
Germany (FRG or West Germany)
proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included
the former UK, US, and French zones;
German Democratic Republic (GDR or
East Germany) proclaimed 7 October
1949 and included the former USSR
zone; unification of West Germany
and East Germany took place 3
October 1990; all four powers
formally relinquished rights 15
March 1991
National holiday: Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
Constitution: 23 May 1949, known as Basic Law;
became constitution of the united
German people 3 October 1990
Legal system: civil law system with indigenous
concepts; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Federal
Constitutional Court; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Johannes
RAU (since 1 July 1999)
elections: president elected for a
five-year term by a Federal
Convention including all members of
the Federal Assembly and an equal
number of delegates elected by the
state parliaments; election last
held 23 May 1999 (next to be held 23
May 2004); chancellor elected by an
absolute majority of the Federal
Assembly for a four-year term;
election last held 27 September 1998
(next to be held 22 September 2002)
head of government: Chancellor
Gerhard SCHROEDER (since 27 October
cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister
(Federal Ministers) appointed by the
president on the recommendation of
the chancellor
election results: Johannes RAU
elected president; percent of
Federal Convention vote - 57.6%;
Gerhard SCHROEDER elected
chancellor; percent of Federal
Assembly - 52.7%
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament
consists of the Federal Assembly or
Bundestag (656 seats usually, but
666 for the 1998 term; note - the
number of seats will be reduced to
598 for 2002 elections; elected by
popular vote under a system
combining direct and proportional
representation; a party must win 5%
of the national vote or three direct
mandates to gain representation;
members serve four-year terms) and
the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69
votes; state governments are
directly represented by votes; each
has 3 to 6 votes depending on
population and are required to vote
as a block)
elections: Federal Assembly - last
held 27 September 1998 (next to be
held 22 September 2002); note -
there are no elections for the
Bundesrat; composition is determined
by the composition of the state-
level governments; the composition
of the Bundesrat has the potential
to change any time one of the 16
states holds an election
election results: Federal Assembly -
percent of vote by party - SPD
40.9%, Alliance '90/Greens 6.7%,
CDU/CSU 35.1%, FDP 6.2%, PDS 5.1%;
seats by party - SPD 294, Alliance
'90/Greens 47, CDU/CSU 245, FDP 43,
PDS 37; Federal Council - current
composition - NA
Judicial branch: Federal Constitutional Court or
Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the
judges are elected by the Bundestag
and half by the Bundesrat)
Political parties and leaders: Alliance '90/Greens [Claudia ROTH
and Fritz KUHN]; Christian
Democratic Union or CDU [Angela
MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or
CSU [Edmund STOIBER, chairman]; Free
Democratic Party or FDP [Guido
WESTERWELLE, chairman]; Party of
Democratic Socialism or PDS [Gregor
GYSI]; Social Democratic Party or
SPD [Gerhard SCHROEDER, chairman]
Political pressure groups and employers' organizations; expellee,
leaders: refugee, trade unions, and veterans
International organization AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC,
participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC,
G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA,
IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW,
(nonregional), WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador
Wolfgang Friedrich ISHINGER
consulate(s): Wellington (America
consulate(s) general: Atlanta,
Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San
FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
telephone: [1] (202) 298-8140
chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW,
Washington, DC 20007
Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel
embassy: Neustaedtische Kirchstrasse
4-5, 10117 Berlin; note - a new
embassy will be built near the
Brandenburg Gate in Berlin
mailing address: PSC 120, Box 1000,
APO AE 09265
telephone: [49] (030) 8305-0
FAX: [49] (030) 238-6290
consulate(s) general: Duesseldorf,
Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig,
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of
black (top), red, and gold

Economy Germany
Economy - overview: Germany's affluent and
technologically powerful economy
turned in a relatively weak
performance throughout much of the
1990s. The modernization and
integration of the eastern German
economy continues to be a costly
long-term problem, with annual
transfers from west to east
amounting to roughly $70 billion.
Germany's ageing population,
combined with high unemployment, has
pushed social security outlays to a
level exceeding contributions from
workers. Structural rigidities in
the labor market - including strict
regulations on laying off workers
and the setting of wages on a
national basis - have made
unemployment a chronic problem.
Business and income tax cuts
introduced in 2001 did not spare
Germany from the impact of the
downturn in international trade, and
domestic demand faltered as
unemployment began to rise. The
government expects growth to gain
pace in the second half of 2002, but
to fall short of 1% for the year
again. Corporate restructuring and
growing capital markets are setting
the foundations that could allow
Germany to meet the long-term
challenges of European economic
integration and globalization,
particularly if labor market
rigidities are addressed.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.174
trillion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.6% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $26,200
(2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1%
industry: 28%
services: 71% (2000)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 3.6%
percentage share: highest 10%: 25.1% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini 30 (1994)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2001)
Labor force: 41.9 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation: industry 33.4%, agriculture 2.8%,
services 63.8% (1999)
Unemployment rate: 9.4% (2001)
Budget: revenues: $802 billion
expenditures: $825 billion,
including capital expenditures of
$NA (2001 est.)
Industries: among the world's largest and most
technologically advanced producers
of iron, steel, coal, cement,
chemicals, machinery, vehicles,
machine tools, electronics, food and
beverages; shipbuilding; textiles
Industrial production growth rate: 0.2% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production: 537.328 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 63.08%
hydro: 3.65%
other: 3.27% (2000)
nuclear: 30%
Electricity - consumption: 501.716 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 42.5 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 44.5 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar
beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle,
pigs, poultry
Exports: $560.7 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery, vehicles, chemicals,
metals and manufactures, foodstuffs,
Exports - partners: EU 56% (France 11%, UK 8%, Italy 8%,
Netherlands 6%, Belgium/Luxembourg
5%), US 10%, Japan 2% (2000)
Imports: $472.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, vehicles, chemicals,
foodstuffs, textiles, metals
Imports - partners: EU 52% (France 10%, Netherlands 9%,
Italy 7%, UK 7%, Belgium/Luxembourg
5%), US 9%, Japan 5% (2000)
Debt - external: $NA
Economic aid - donor: ODA, $5.6 billion (1998)
Currency: euro (EUR); deutsche mark (DEM)
note: on 1 January 1999, the
European Monetary Union introduced
the euro as a common currency to be
used by financial institutions of
member countries; on 1 January 2002,
the euro became the sole currency
for everyday transactions within the
member countries
Currency code: EUR; DEM
Exchange rates: euros per US dollar - 1.1324
(January 2002), 1.1175 (2001),
1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999);
deutsche marks per US dollar - 1.69
(January 1999), 1.7597 (1998),
1.7341 (1997)
Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Germany
Telephones - main lines in use: 50.9 million (March 2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 55.3 million (June 2001)
Telephone system: general assessment: Germany has one
of the world's most technologically
advanced telecommunications systems;
as a result of intensive capital
expenditures since reunification,
the formerly backward system of the
eastern part of the country, dating
back to World War II, has been
modernized and integrated with that
of the western part
domestic: Germany is served by an
extensive system of automatic
telephone exchanges connected by
modern networks of fiber-optic
cable, coaxial cable, microwave
radio relay, and a domestic
satellite system; cellular telephone
service is widely available,
expanding rapidly, and includes
roaming service to many foreign
international: Germany's
international service is excellent
worldwide, consisting of extensive
land and undersea cable facilities
as well as earth stations in the
INTERSPUTNIK satellite systems
Radio broadcast stations: AM 51, FM 787, shortwave 4 (1998)
Radios: 77.8 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 373 (plus 8,042 repeaters) (1995)
Televisions: 51.4 million (1998)
Internet country code: .de
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 200 (2001)
Internet users: 28.64 million (2001)

Transportation Germany
Railways: total: 44,000 km (including at least
20,300 km electrified); most routes
are double- or multiple-track
note: since privatization in 1994,
Deutsche Bahn AG (DBAG) no longer
publishes details of the track it
owns; in addition to the DBAG system
there are 102 privately owned
railway companies which own
approximately 3,000 to 4,000 km of
track (2001 est.)
Highways: total: 656,140 km
paved: 650,891 km (including 11,400
km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,249 km (all-weather)
(1998 est.)
Waterways: 7,500 km
note: major rivers include the Rhine
and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important
connection between the Baltic Sea
and North Sea (1999)
Pipelines: crude oil 2,240 km (2001)
Ports and harbors: Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen,
Bremerhaven, Cologne, Dresden,
Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe,
Kiel, Luebeck, Magdeburg, Mannheim,
Rostock, Stuttgart
Merchant marine: total: 388 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 5,758,942 GRT/7,132,525 DWT

ships by type: cargo 132, chemical
tanker 10, container 219, liquefied
gas 3, passenger 3, petroleum tanker
7, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated
cargo 1, roll on/roll off 4, short-
sea passenger 7
note: includes some foreign-owned
ships registered here as a flag of
convenience: Chile 1, Finland 5,
Iceland 1, Netherlands 3,
Switzerland 1 (2002 est.)
Airports: 625 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 325
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 55
914 to 1,523 m: 67
under 914 m: 127 (2001)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 65
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 300
under 914 m: 238 (2001)
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 51
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
Heliports: 59 (2001)

Military Germany
Military branches: Army, Navy (including naval air
arm), Air Force, Medical Corps,
Joint Support Service
Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 20,854,329 (2002
Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 17,734,977 (2002
service: est.)
Military manpower - reaching males: 482,318 (2002 est.)
military age annually:
Military expenditures - dollar $38.8 billion (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of 1.38% (2002)

Transnational Issues Germany
Disputes - international: none
Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for
South American cocaine processors;
transshipment point for and consumer
of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin
American cocaine, and European-
produced synthetic drugs
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