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Ghana

 

Ghana
Introduction Ghana
------------------
Background: Formed from the merger of the
British colony of the Gold Coast and
the Togoland trust territory, Ghana
in 1957 became the first country in
colonial Africa to gain its
independence. A long series of coups
resulted in the suspension of the
constitution in 1981 and the banning
of political parties. A new
constitution, restoring multiparty
politics, was approved in 1992. Lt.
Jerry RAWLINGS, head of state since
1981, won presidential elections in
1992 and 1996, but was
constitutionally prevented from
running for a third term in 2000. He
was succeeded by John KUFUOR.

Geography Ghana
---------------
Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf
of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and
Togo
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 2 00 W
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 239,460 sq km
land: 230,940 sq km
water: 8,520 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries: total: 2,094 km
border countries: Burkina Faso 549
km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877
km
Coastline: 539 km
Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Climate: tropical; warm and comparatively dry
along southeast coast; hot and humid
in southwest; hot and dry in north
Terrain: mostly low plains with dissected
plateau in south-central area
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Afadjato 880 m
Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds,
bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber,
hydropower
Land use: arable land: 15.82%
permanent crops: 7.47%
other: 76.71% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan
winds occur from January to March;
droughts
Environment - current issues: recurrent drought in north severely
affects agricultural activities;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil
erosion; poaching and habitat
destruction threatens wildlife
populations; water pollution;
inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification,
Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine
Life Conservation
Geography - note: Lake Volta is the world's largest
artificial lake

People Ghana
------------
Population: 20,244,154
note: estimates for this country
explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to
AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality
and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the
distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be
expected (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.4% (male 4,116,600;
female 4,063,654)
15-64 years: 56.1% (male 5,625,397;
female 5,723,786)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male
338,352; female 376,365) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.7% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 28.08 births/1,000 population (2002
est.)
Death rate: 10.31 deaths/1,000 population (2002
est.)
Net migration rate: -0.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population
(2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/
female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/
female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 55.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 57.06 years
female: 58.51 years (2002 est.)
male: 55.66 years
Total fertility rate: 3.69 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 3.6% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 340,000 (1999 est.)
AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 33,000 (1999 est.)
Nationality: noun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian
Ethnic groups: black African 98.5% (major tribes -
Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe
13%, Ga 8%, Gurma 3%, Yoruba 1%),
European and other 1.5% (1998)
Religions: indigenous beliefs 21%, Muslim 16%,
Christian 63%
Languages: English (official), African
languages (including Akan, Moshi-
Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
and write
male: 75.9%
female: 53.5% (1995 est.)
total population: 64.5%
People - note: there are 9,500 Liberians, 2,000
Sierra Leoneans, and 1,000 Togolese
refugees residing in Ghana (2002)

Government Ghana
----------------
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
Ghana
conventional short form: Ghana
former: Gold Coast
Government type: constitutional democracy
Capital: Accra
Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo,
Central, Eastern, Greater Accra,
Northern, Upper East, Upper West,
Volta, Western
Independence: 6 March 1957 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Constitution: new constitution approved 28 April
1992
Legal system: based on English common law and
customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President John
Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January
2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu
MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note
- the president is both the chief of
state and head of government
head of government: President John
Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January
2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu
MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note
- the president is both the chief of
state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers;
president nominates members subject
to approval by Parliament
elections: president and vice
president elected on the same ticket
by popular vote for four-year terms;
election last held 7 and 28 December
2000 (next to be held NA December
2004)
election results: John Agyekum
KUFUOR elected president in runoff
election; percent of vote - John
KUFUOR 56.4%, John Atta MILLS 43.6%
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (200 seats;
members are elected by direct,
popular vote to serve four-year
terms)
elections: last held 7 December 2000
(next to be held NA December 2004)
election results: percent of vote by
party - NA%; seats by party - NPP
100, NDC 92, PNC 3, CPP 1,
independents 4
Judicial branch: Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders: Convention People's Party or CPP
[Nii Noi DOWUONA, general
secretary]; Every Ghanaian Living
Everywhere or EGLE [Owuraku AMOFA,
chairman]; Great Consolidated
Popular Party or GCPP [Dan LARTY];
National Convention Party or NCP
[Sarpong KUMA-KUMA]; National
Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr.
Huudu YAHAYA, general secretary];
New Patriotic Party or NPP [Samuel
Arthur ODOI-SYKES]; People's
Convention Party or PCP [P. K.
DONKOH-AYIFI, acting chairman];
People's Heritage Party or PHP
[Emmanuel Alexander ERSKINE];
People's National Convention or PNC
[Edward MAHAMA]; Reform Party
[Kyeretwie OPUKU, general secretary]
Political pressure groups and NA
leaders:
International organization ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA,
participation: ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer),
OAU, OPCW, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM,
UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP,
UNMOT, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alan J.
KYEREMATEN
consulate(s) general: New York
FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
chancery: 3512 International Drive
NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Nancy
US: J. POWELL
embassy: 6th and 10th Lanes, 798/
1 Osu, Accra
mailing address: P. O. Box 194,
Accra
telephone: [233] (21) 776601, 776602

FAX: [233] (21) 775747
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red
(top), yellow, and green with a
large black five-pointed star
centered in the yellow band; uses
the popular pan-African colors of
Ethiopia; similar to the flag of
Bolivia, which has a coat of arms
centered in the yellow band

Economy Ghana
-------------
Economy - overview: Well endowed with natural resources,
Ghana has roughly twice the per
capita output of the poorer
countries in West Africa. Even so,
Ghana remains heavily dependent on
international financial and
technical assistance. Gold, timber,
and cocoa production are major
sources of foreign exchange. The
domestic economy continues to
revolve around subsistence
agriculture, which accounts for 36%
of GDP and employs 60% of the work
force, mainly small landholders.
Excessively expansionary monetary
and fiscal policy prior to the 2000
elections led to accelerating
inflation in early 2001. A depressed
cocoa market and continued weak
growth in non-traditional exports
led to disappointing growth in 2001.
Ghana opted for debt relief under
the Heavily Indebted Poor Country
(HIPC) program in 2002.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $39.4
billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,980
(2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 36%
industry: 25%
services: 39% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line: 31.4% (1992 est.)
Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.4%
percentage share: highest 10%: 29.5% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini 39.6 (1998)
index:
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (2001 est.)
Labor force: 9 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 60%, industry 15%,
services 25% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 20% (1997 est.)
Budget: revenues: $1.603 billion
expenditures: $1.975 billion,
including capital expenditures of
$NA (2001 est.)
Industries: mining, lumbering, light
manufacturing, aluminum smelting,
food processing
Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production: 5.92 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 30.41%
hydro: 69.59%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption: 5.484 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 422 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 400 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: cocoa, rice, coffee, cassava
(tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts,
bananas; timber
Exports: $1.94 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities: gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite,
aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds
Exports - partners: Togo, UK, Italy, Netherlands,
Germany, US, France (1998)
Imports: $2.83 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Imports - commodities: capital equipment, petroleum,
foodstuffs
Imports - partners: UK, Nigeria, US, Germany, Italy,
Spain (1998)
Debt - external: $5.96 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $6.9 billion (1999)
Currency: cedi (GHC)
Currency code: GHC
Exchange rates: cedis per US dollar - 7,195 (January
2002), 7,170.76 (2001), 5,455.06
(2000), 2,669.30 (1999), 2,314.15
(1998), 2,050.17 (1997)
Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Ghana
--------------------
Telephones - main lines in use: 240,000 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 150,000 (2001)
Telephone system: general assessment: poor to fair
system; Internet accessible; many
rural communities not yet connected;
expansion of services is underway
domestic: primarily microwave radio
relay; wireless local loop has been
installed
international: satellite earth
stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean); microwave radio relay link
to Panaftel system connects Ghana to
its neighbors
Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 49, shortwave 3 (2001)
Radios: 12.5 million (2001)
Television broadcast stations: 10 (2001)
Televisions: 1.9 million (2001)
Internet country code: .gh
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 12 (2000)
Internet users: 200,000 (2002)

Transportation Ghana
--------------------
Railways: total: 953 km
narrow gauge: 953 km 1.067-m gauge;
undergoing major rehabilitation
(2001 est.)
Highways: total: 38,940 km
paved: 9,346 km (including 30 km of
expressways)
unpaved: 29,594 km (2001)
Waterways: 1,293 km
note: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano
Rivers provide 168 km of perennial
navigation for launches and
lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125
km of arterial and feeder waterways
Pipelines: 0 km
Ports and harbors: Takoradi, Tema
Merchant marine: total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 16,450 GRT/22,097 DWT
ships by type: petroleum tanker 2,
refrigerated cargo 5
note: includes some foreign-owned
ships registered here as a flag of
convenience: Brazil 1, Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines 1, Spain 1 (2002
est.)
Airports: 12 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2001)

Military Ghana
--------------
Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National
Police Force
Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 5,045,355 (2002
est.)
Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 2,799,292 (2002
service: est.)
Military manpower - reaching military males: 213,237 (2002 est.)
age annually:
Military expenditures - dollar $35.2 million (FY01)
figure:
Military expenditures - percent of 0.7% (FY01)
GDP:

Transnational Issues Ghana
--------------------------
Disputes - international: none
Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the
international drug trade; major
transit hub for Southwest and
Southeast Asian heroin and, to a
lesser extent, South American
cocaine destined for Europe and the
US
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