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Introduction Gibraltar
Background: Strategically important, Gibraltar
was ceded to Great Britain by Spain
in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the
British garrison was formally
declared a colony in 1830. In a 1967
referendum, Gibraltarians ignored
Spanish pressure and voted
overwhelmingly to remain a British
dependency. Spain and the UK are
discussing the issue of Gibraltar
and have set the goal of reaching an
agreement by mid-2002.

Geography Gibraltar
Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the
Strait of Gibraltar, which links the
Mediterranean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, on the southern
coast of Spain
Geographic coordinates: 36 8 N, 5 21 W
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 6.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 6.5 sq km
Area - comparative: about 11 times the size of The Mall
in Washington, DC
Land boundaries: total: 1.2 km
border countries: Spain 1.2 km
Coastline: 12 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 NM
Climate: Mediterranean with mild winters and
warm summers
Terrain: a narrow coastal lowland borders the
Rock of Gibraltar
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426
Natural resources: NEGL
Land use: arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: NA
Environment - current issues: limited natural freshwater
resources: large concrete or natural
rock water catchments collect
rainwater (no longer used for
drinking water) and adequate
desalination plant
Geography - note: strategic location on Strait of
Gibraltar that links the North
Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

People Gibraltar
Population: 27,714 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.5% (male 2,633;
female 2,509)
15-64 years: 66.3% (male 9,456;
female 8,907)
65 years and over: 15.2% (male
1,803; female 2,406) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.23% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 11.19 births/1,000 population (2002
Death rate: 8.88 deaths/1,000 population (2002
Net migration rate: NEGL migrant(s)/1,000 population
(2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/
total population: 1.01 male(s)/
female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.23 years
female: 82.25 years (2002 est.)
male: 76.37 years
Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Gibraltarian(s)
adjective: Gibraltar
Ethnic groups: Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese,
Religions: Roman Catholic 76.9%, Church of
England 6.9%, Muslim 6.9%, Jewish
2.3%, none or other 7% (1991)
Languages: English (used in schools and for
official purposes), Spanish,
Italian, Portuguese, Russian
Literacy: definition: NA
total population: above 80%
male: NA%
female: NA%

Government Gibraltar
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Gibraltar
Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK
Government type: NA
Capital: Gibraltar
Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday: National Day, 10 September (1964);
note - day of the national
referendum to decide whether to
remain with the UK or go with Spain
Constitution: 30 May 1969
Legal system: English law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, plus
other UK subjects who have been
residents six months or more
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II
(since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor and Commander-in-Chief
David DURIE (since 5 April 2000);
note - DURIE was appointed in
February 2000 but took office in
April 2000
elections: none; the monarch is
hereditary; governor appointed by
the monarch; chief minister
appointed by the governor
head of government: Chief Minister
Peter CARUANA (since 17 May 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
appointed from among the 15 elected
members of the House of Assembly by
the governor in consultation with
the chief minister
Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (18
seats - 15 elected by popular vote,
one appointed for the Speaker, and
two ex officio members; members
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 10 February
2000 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: percent of vote by
party - GSD 58%, GSLP 41%; seats by
party - GSD 8, GSLP 7
Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders: Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD
[Peter CARUANA]; Gibraltar Socialist
Labor Party or GSLP [Joseph John
Political pressure groups and Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar
leaders: Representatives Organization;
Women's Association
International organization Interpol (subbureau)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the none (overseas territory of the UK)
Flag description: two horizontal bands of white (top,
double width) and red with a three-
towered red castle in the center of
the white band; hanging from the
castle gate is a gold key centered
in the red band

Economy Gibraltar
Economy - overview: Gibraltar benefits from an extensive
shipping trade, offshore banking,
and its position as an international
conference center. The British
military presence has been sharply
reduced and now contributes about
11% to the local economy. The
financial sector accounts for 20% of
GDP; tourism (almost 6 million
visitors in 1998), shipping services
fees, and duties on consumer goods
also generate revenue. In recent
years, Gibraltar has seen major
structural change from a public to a
private sector economy, but changes
in government spending still have a
major impact on the level of
GDP: purchasing power parity - $500
million (1997 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,500
(1997 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1998)
Labor force: 14,800 (including non-Gibraltar
Labor force - by occupation: services 60%, industry 40%,
agriculture NEGL%
Unemployment rate: 13.5% (1996)
Budget: revenues: $307 million
expenditures: $284 million,
including capital expenditures of
$NA (FY00/01 est.)
Industries: tourism, banking and finance, ship-
building and repairing; tobacco,
mineral water, beer
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - production: 97 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption: 90.21 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: none
Exports: $81.1 million (f.o.b., 1997)
Exports - commodities: (principally reexports) petroleum
51%, manufactured goods 41%, other
Exports - partners: UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands,
Spain, US, Germany
Imports: $492 million (c.i.f., 1997)
Imports - commodities: fuels, manufactured goods, and
Imports - partners: UK, Spain, Japan, Netherlands
Debt - external: $NA
Economic aid - recipient: $NA; note - if an agreement between
Spain and the UK is reached, could
receive 50 million euros from the EU
Currency: Gibraltar pound (GIP)
Currency code: GIP
Exchange rates: Gibraltar pounds per US dollar -
0.6981 (January 2002), 0.8977
(2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180
(1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106
(1997); note - the Gibraltar pound
is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Communications Gibraltar
Telephones - main lines in use: 19,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,620 (1997)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate,
automatic domestic system and
adequate international facilities
domestic: automatic exchange
international: radiotelephone;
microwave radio relay; satellite
earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 37,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus three low-power repeaters)
Televisions: 10,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .gi
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
Internet users: NA

Transportation Gibraltar
Railways: total: NA km; 1.000-m gauge system
in dockyard area only (no longer
used) (2001 est.)
Highways: total: 46.25 km
paved: 46.25 km
unpaved: 0 km (2001)
Waterways: none
Pipelines: 0 km
Ports and harbors: Gibraltar
Merchant marine: total: 75 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 900,400 GRT/1,277,611 DWT
note: includes some foreign-owned
ships registered here as a flag of
convenience: Belgium 1, Cyprus 1,
France 2, Germany 55, Greece 6,
Ireland 1, Monaco 2, Norway 3,
United Kingdom 13 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 35,
chemical tanker 6, container 10,
multi-functional large-load carrier
3, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 14,
roll on/roll off 2
Airports: 1 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2001)

Military Gibraltar
Military branches: no regular indigenous military
forces; British Army, Royal Navy,
Royal Air Force
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the

Transnational Issues Gibraltar
Disputes - international: Spain and UK are discussing "total
shared sovereignty" to resolve 300-
year dispute over Gibraltar, but
resolution is subject to a
constitutional referendum by
Gibraltarians, who have largely
expressed opposition to any form of
cession to Spain
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