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Antigua and Barbuda


Antigua and Barbuda
Introduction Antigua and Barbuda
Background: The islands of Antigua and Barbuda
became an independent state within
the British Commonwealth of Nations
in 1981. Some 3,000 refugees fleeing
a volcanic eruption on nearby
Montserrat have settled in Antigua
and Barbuda since 1995.

Geography Antigua and Barbuda
Location: Caribbean, islands between the
Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N, 61 48 W
Map references: Central America and the Caribbean
Area: total: 443 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km;
Barbuda 161 sq km)
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km
land: 442 sq km
Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 153 km
Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or to the
edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal
temperature variation
Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral
islands, with some higher volcanic
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m
Natural resources: NEGL; pleasant climate fosters
Land use: arable land: 18.18%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 81.82% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July
to October); periodic droughts
Environment - current issues: water management - a major concern
because of limited natural fresh
water resources - is further
hampered by the clearing of trees to
increase crop production, causing
rainfall to run off quickly
Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
agreements: Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of
the selected agreements
Geography - note: Antigua has a deeply indented
shoreline with many natural harbors
and beaches; Barbuda has a very
large western harbor

People Antigua and Barbuda
Population: 67,448 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 28% (male 9,618; female
15-64 years: 67.3% (male 22,695;
female 22,682)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 1,289;
female 1,871) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.69% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 18.84 births/1,000 population (2002
Death rate: 5.75 deaths/1,000 population (2002
Net migration rate: -6.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population
(2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/
total population: 0.99 male(s)/
female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 21.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.02 years
female: 73.45 years (2002 est.)
male: 68.72 years
Total fertility rate: 2.29 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
Ethnic groups: black, British, Portuguese,
Lebanese, Syrian
Religions: Anglican (predominant), other
Protestant, some Roman Catholic
Languages: English (official), local dialects
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has
completed five or more years of
total population: 89%
male: 90%
female: 88% (1960 est.)

Government Antigua and Barbuda
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and
Government type: constitutional monarchy with UK-
style parliament
Capital: Saint John's
Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*;
Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George,
Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul,
Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day (National Day), 1
November (1981)
Constitution: 1 November 1981
Legal system: based on English common law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II
(since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor General James B.
CARLISLE (since NA 1993)
elections: none; the monarch is
hereditary; governor general chosen
by the monarch on the advice of the
prime minister; prime minister
appointed by the governor general
cabinet: Council of Ministers
appointed by the governor general on
the advice of the prime minister
head of government: Prime Minister
Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the
Senate (17-member body appointed by
the governor general) and the House
of Representatives (17 seats;
members are elected by proportional
representation to serve five-year
election results: percent of vote by
party - NA%; seats by party - ALP
12, UPP 4, independent 1
elections: House of Representatives
- last held 9 March 1999 (next to be
held NA March 2004)
Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
(based in Saint Lucia; one judge of
the Supreme Court is a resident of
the islands and presides over the
Court of Summary Jurisdiction)
Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester
Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's
Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK];
United Progressive Party or UPP
[Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of
three opposition parties - United
National Democratic Party or UNDP,
Antigua Caribbean Liberation
Movement or ACLM, and Progressive
Labor Movement or PLM)
Political pressure groups and Antigua Trades and Labor Union or
leaders: ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's
Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh
International organization ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-
participation: 77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM
(observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN,
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel
Alexander HURST
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami
Diplomatic representation from the the US does not have an embassy in
US: Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed
30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to
Barbados is accredited to Antigua
and Barbuda
Flag description: red, with an inverted isosceles
triangle based on the top edge of
the flag; the triangle contains
three horizontal bands of black
(top), light blue, and white, with a
yellow rising sun in the black band

Economy Antigua and Barbuda
Economy - overview: Tourism continues to dominate the
economy, accounting for more than
half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival
numbers since early 2000 have slowed
the economy, however, and pressed
the government into a tight fiscal
corner. The dual-island nation's
agricultural production is focused
on the domestic market and
constrained by a limited water
supply and a labor shortage stemming
from the lure of higher wages in
tourism and construction work.
Manufacturing comprises enclave-type
assembly for export with major
products being bedding, handicrafts,
and electronic components. Prospects
for economic growth in the medium
term will continue to depend on
income growth in the industrialized
world, especially in the US, which
accounts for about one-third of all
tourist arrivals.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $674
million (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,000
(2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.9%
industry: 19.1%
services: 77% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
percentage share: highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.4% (2000 est.)
Labor force: 30,000
Labor force - by occupation: commerce and services 82%,
agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)
Unemployment rate: 7% (2000 est.)
Budget: revenues: $123.7 million
expenditures: $145.9 million,
including capital expenditures of
$NA (2000 est.)
Industries: tourism, construction, light
manufacturing (clothing, alcohol,
household appliances)
Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)
Electricity - production: 100 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption: 93 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas,
coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes,
sugarcane; livestock
Exports: $40 million (2000 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures
23%, machinery and transport
equipment 17%, food and live animals
4%, other 8%
Exports - partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%,
Trinidad and Tobago 2%, US 0.3%
Imports: $357 million (2000 est.)
Imports - commodities: food and live animals, machinery and
transport equipment, manufactures,
chemicals, oil
Imports - partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%
Debt - external: $231 million (1999)
Economic aid - recipient: $2.3 million (1995)
Currency: East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Currency code: XCD
Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars per US dollar
- 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Communications Antigua and Barbuda
Telephones - main lines in use: 28,000 (1996)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,300 (1996)
Telephone system: general assessment: NA
domestic: good automatic telephone
international: 1 coaxial submarine
cable; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
tropospheric scatter to Saba
(Netherlands Antilles) and
Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 36,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)
Televisions: 31,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .ag
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000)
Internet users: 5,000 (2001)

Transportation Antigua and Barbuda
Railways: total: 77 km
narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge;
13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost
exclusively for handling sugarcane)
(2001 est.)
Highways: total: 1,165 km
paved: 384 km
unpaved: 781 km
note: it is assumed that the main
roads are paved; the secondary roads
are assumed to be unpaved (1995)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Saint John's
Merchant marine: total: 762 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 4,541,940 GRT/5,894,553 DWT

ships by type: bulk 20, cargo 469,
chemical tanker 9, combination bulk
4, container 202, liquefied gas 7,
multi-functional large-load carrier
6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated
cargo 9, roll on/roll off 35
note: includes some foreign-owned
ships registered here as a flag of
convenience: Australia 1, Bangladesh
2, Belgium 3, Colombia 1, Cuba 1,
Estonia 1, Germany 747, Greece 1,
Iceland 8, Latvia 1, Lebanon 2,
Lithuania 1, Netherlands 22, New
Zealand 2, Portugal 1, Slovenia 6,
South Africa 1, Sweden 2, United
Kingdom 1, United States 7 (2002
Airports: 3 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Military Antigua and Barbuda
Military branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense
Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda
Police Force (including the Coast
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA
Military expenditures - percent of NA%

Transnational Issues Antigua and Barbuda
Disputes - international: none
Illicit drugs: considered a minor transshipment
point for narcotics bound for the US
and Europe; more significant as a
drug-money-laundering center
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