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Introduction Tanzania
Background: Shortly after independence,
Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to
form the nation of Tanzania in 1964.
One-party rule came to an end in
1995 with the first democratic
elections held in the country since
the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-
autonomous status and popular
opposition have led to two
contentious elections since 1995,
which the ruling party won despite
international observers' claims of
voting irregularities.

Geography Tanzania
Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian
Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 35 00 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 945,087 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia,
Pemba, and Zanzibar
water: 59,050 sq km
land: 886,037 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly larger than twice the size
of California
Land boundaries: total: 3,402 km
border countries: Burundi 451 km,
Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km,
Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km,
Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km
Coastline: 1,424 km
Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate: varies from tropical along coast to
temperate in highlands
Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau;
highlands in north, south
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m
Natural resources: hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron
ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones,
gold, natural gas, nickel
Land use: arable land: 4.24%
permanent crops: 1.02%
other: 94.74% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: 1,550 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: flooding on the central plateau
during the rainy season; drought
Environment - current issues: soil degradation; deforestation;
desertification; destruction of
coral reefs threatens marine
habitats; recent droughts affected
marginal agriculture; wildlife
threatened by illegal hunting and
trade, especially for ivory
Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear
Test Ban
Geography - note: Kilimanjaro is highest point in
Africa; bordered by three of the
largest lakes on the continent: Lake
Victoria (the world's second-largest
freshwater lake) in the north, Lake
Tanganyika (the world's second
deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa
in the southwest

People Tanzania
Population: 37,187,939
note: estimates for this country
explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to
AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality
and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the
distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be
expected (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.6% (male 8,338,764;
female 8,247,789)
15-64 years: 52.5% (male 9,674,951;
female 9,847,084)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male
483,760; female 595,591) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.6% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 39.12 births/1,000 population (2002
Death rate: 13.02 deaths/1,000 population (2002
Net migration rate: -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population
(2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/
total population: 0.99 male(s)/
female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 77.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 51.7 years
female: 52.67 years (2002 est.)
male: 50.76 years
Total fertility rate: 5.33 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 8.09% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 1.3 million (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 140,000 (1999 est.)
Nationality: noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian
Ethnic groups: mainland - native African 99% (of
which 95% are Bantu consisting of
more than 130 tribes), other 1%
(consisting of Asian, European, and
Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, native
African, mixed Arab and native
Religions: mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim
35%, indigenous beliefs 35%;
Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim
Languages: Kiswahili or Swahili (official),
Kiunguju (name for Swahili in
Zanzibar), English (official,
primary language of commerce,
administration, and higher
education), Arabic (widely spoken in
Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the
mother tongue of the Bantu people
living in Zanzibar and nearby
coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili
is Bantu in structure and origin,
its vocabulary draws on a variety of
sources, including Arabic and
English, and it has become the
lingua franca of central and eastern
Africa; the first language of most
people is one of the local languages
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
and write Kiswahili (Swahili),
English, or Arabic
total population: 67.8%
male: 79.4%
female: 56.8% (1995 est.)

Government Tanzania
Country name: conventional long form: United
Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of
Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Government type: republic
Capital: Dar es Salaam; note - legislative
offices have been transferred to
Dodoma, which is planned as the new
national capital; the National
Assembly now meets there on regular
Administrative divisions: 25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam,
Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma,
Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya,
Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba
North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa,
Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora,
Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South,
Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West
Independence: 26 April 1964; Tanganyika became
independent 9 December 1961 (from
UK-administered UN trusteeship);
Zanzibar became independent 19
December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika
united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964
to form the United Republic of
Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed
United Republic of Tanzania 29
October 1964
National holiday: Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar),
26 April (1964)
Constitution: 25 April 1977; major revisions
October 1984
Legal system: based on English common law;
judicial review of legislative acts
limited to matters of
interpretation; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Benjamin
William MKAPA (since 23 November
1995); Vice President Dr. Ali
Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001);
note - the president is both chief
of state and head of government;
Prime Minister Frederick SUMAYE
(since NA) does not function as the
head of government
head of government: President
Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23
November 1995); Vice President Dr.
Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July
2001); note - the president is both
chief of state and head of
government; Prime Minister Frederick
SUMAYE (since NA) does not function
as the head of government
note: Zanzibar elects a president
who is head of government for
matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani
Abeid KARUME was elected to that
office on 29 October 2000
cabinet: Cabinet ministers,
including the prime minister, are
appointed by the president from
among the members of the National
election results: Benjamin William
MKAPA reelected president; percent
of vote - Benjamin William MKAPA
71.7%, Ibrahim Haruna LIPUMBA 16.3%,
Augustine Lyatonga MREME 7.8%, John
Momose CHEYO 4.2%
elections: president and vice
president elected on the same ballot
by popular vote for five-year terms;
election last held 29 October 2000
(next to be held NA October 2005);
prime minister appointed by the
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or
Bunge (274 seats - 232 elected by
popular vote, 37 allocated to women
nominated by the president, five to
members of the Zanzibar House of
Representatives; members serve five-
year terms); note - in addition to
enacting laws that apply to the
entire United Republic of Tanzania,
the Assembly enacts laws that apply
only to the mainland; Zanzibar has
its own House of Representatives to
make laws especially for Zanzibar
(the Zanzibar House of
Representatives has 50 seats,
directly elected by universal
suffrage to serve five-year terms)
election results: National Assembly
- percent of vote by party - NA%;
seats by party - CCM 244, CUF 16,
CHADEMA 4, TLP 3, UDP 2, Zanzibar
representatives 5; Zanzibar House of
Representatives - percent of vote by
party - NA%; seats by party - CCM
34, CUF 16
elections: last held 29 October 2000
(next to be held NA October 2005)
Judicial branch: Permanent Commission of Enquiry
(official ombudsman); Court of
Appeal (consists of a chief justice
and four judges); High Court
(consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29
judges appointed by the president;
holds regular sessions in all
regions); District Courts; Primary
Courts (limited jurisdiction and
appeals can be made to the higher
Political parties and leaders: Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo or
CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI, chairman];
Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM
(Revolutionary Party) [Benjamin
William MKAPA, chairman]; Civic
United Front or CUF [Seif Sharif
HAMAD, secretary-general];
Democratic Party (unregistered)
[Reverend Christopher MTIKLA];
National Convention for Construction
and Reform or NCCR [James MBATIA,
secretary general]; Tanzania Labor
Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga
MREMA, chairman]; Union for
Multiparty Democracy or UMD [leader
NA]; United Democratic Party or UDP
[John CHEYO]
Political pressure groups and NA
International organization ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO,
participation: G- 6, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mustafa
chancery: 2139 R Street NW,
Washington, DC 20008
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Robert
embassy: 140 Msese Road, Kinondoni
District, Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar
es Salaam
telephone: [255] (22) 666010 through
FAX: [255] (22) 666701
Flag description: divided diagonally by a yellow-edged
black band from the lower hoist-side
corner; the upper triangle (hoist
side) is green and the lower
triangle is blue

Economy Tanzania
Economy - overview: Tanzania is one of the poorest
countries in the world. The economy
is heavily dependent on agriculture,
which accounts for half of GDP,
provides 85% of exports, and employs
80% of the work force. Topography
and climatic conditions, however,
limit cultivated crops to only 4% of
the land area. Industry is mainly
limited to processing agricultural
products and light consumer goods.
The World Bank, the International
Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors
have provided funds to rehabilitate
Tanzania's deteriorated economic
infrastructure. Growth in 1991-2001
featured a pickup in industrial
production and a substantial
increase in output of minerals, led
by gold. Natural gas exploration in
the Rufiji Delta looks promising and
production could start by 2002.
Recent banking reforms have helped
increase private sector growth and
investment. Continued donor support
and solid macroeconomic policies
should support steady real GDP
growth of 5% in 2002 and 2003.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $22.1
billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $610 (2001
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 48.4%
industry: 16.7%
services: 34.9% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line: 51.1% (1991 est.)
Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.8%
percentage share: highest 10%: 30.1% (1993)
Distribution of family income - Gini 38.2 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (2001 est.)
Labor force: 13.495 million
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and
services 20% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Budget: revenues: $1.01 billion
expenditures: $1.38 billion,
including capital expenditures of
$NA (FY00/01 est.)
Industries: primarily agricultural processing
(sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal
twine), diamond and gold mining, oil
refining, shoes, cement, textiles,
wood products, fertilizer, salt
Industrial production growth rate: 8.4% (1999 est.)
Electricity - production: 2.765 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 18.08%
hydro: 81.92%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption: 2.616 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 45 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: coffee, sisal, tea, cotton,
pyrethrum (insecticide made from
chrysanthemums), cashew nuts,
tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar), corn,
wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas,
fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep,
Exports: $827 million (f.o.b., 2001)
Exports - commodities: gold, coffee, cashew nuts,
manufactures, cotton (2000)
Exports - partners: UK 22.0%, India 14.8%, Germany 9.9%,
Netherlands 6.9% (2000)
Imports: $1.55 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
Imports - commodities: consumer goods, machinery and
transportation equipment, industrial
raw materials, crude oil
Imports - partners: South Africa 11.5%, Japan 9.3%, UK
7.0%, Australia 6.2% (2000)
Debt - external: $6.8 billion (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $963 million (1997)
Currency: Tanzanian shilling (TZS)
Currency code: TZS
Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings per US dollar -
924.70 (January 2002), 876.41
(2001), 800.41 (2000), 744.76
(1999), 664.67 (1998), 612.12 (1997)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Communications Tanzania
Telephones - main lines in use: 127,000 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 30,000 (1999)
Telephone system: general assessment: fair system
operating below capacity and being
modernized for better service; VSAT
(very small aperture terminal)
system under construction
domestic: trunk service provided by
open wire, microwave radio relay,
tropospheric scatter, and fiber-
optic cable; some links being made
international: satellite earth
stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian
Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 11, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios: 8.8 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 3 (1999)
Televisions: 103,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .tz
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)
Internet users: 115,000 (2001)

Transportation Tanzania
Railways: total: 3,569 km
narrow gauge: 2,600 km 1.000-
m gauge; 969 km 1.067-m gauge
note: the Tanzania-Zambia Railway
Authority (TAZARA), which operates
1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge
track between Dar es Salaam and
Kapiri Mposhi in Zambia (of which
969 km are in Tanzania and 891 km
are in Zambia) is not a part of
Tanzania Railways Corporation;
because of the difference in gauge,
this system does not connect to
Tanzania Railways (2001)
Highways: total: 85,000 km
paved: 4,250 km
unpaved: 80,750 km (2001)
Waterways: note: Lake Tanganyika, Lake
Victoria, and Lake Nyasa are
principal avenues of commerce
between Tanzania and its neighbors
on those lakes
Pipelines: crude oil 982 km
Ports and harbors: Bukoba, Dar es Salaam, Kigoma, Kilwa
Masoko, Lindi, Mtwara, Mwanza,
Pangani, Tanga, Wete, Zanzibar
Merchant marine: total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 21,987 GRT/27,121 DWT
ships by type: cargo 2, passenger/
cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll
on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 1
(2002 est.)
Airports: 125 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 114
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 61
under 914 m: 35 (2001)

Military Tanzania
Military branches: Tanzanian People's Defense Force
(including Army, Navy, and Air
Force), paramilitary Police Field
Force Unit (including Police Marine
Unit and Police Air Wing),
territorial militia
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 8,636,817 (2002
Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 4,997,257 (2002
service: est.)
Military expenditures - dollar $19 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of 0.2% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Tanzania
Disputes - international: Tanzania and Malawi maintain a
largely dormant dispute over the
boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi)
and current location of historical
boundary in the meandering Songwe
Illicit drugs: growing role in transshipment of
Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin
and South American cocaine destined
for South African, European, and US
markets and of South Asian
methaqualone bound for Southern
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