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Introduction Zambia
Background: The territory of Northern Rhodesia
was administered by the South Africa
Company from 1891 until it was taken
over by the UK in 1923. During the
1920s and 1930s, advances in mining
spurred development and immigration.
The name was changed to Zambia upon
independence in 1964. In the 1980s
and 1990s, declining copper prices
and a prolonged drought hurt the
economy. Elections in 1991 brought
an end to one-party rule, but the
subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant
harassment of opposition parties.
The election in 2001 was marked by
administrative problems with at
least two parties filing legal
petitions challenging the results.
Opposition parties currently hold a
majority of seats in the National

Geography Zambia
Location: Southern Africa, east of Angola
Geographic coordinates: 15 00 S, 30 00 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 752,614 sq km
water: 11,890 sq km
land: 740,724 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries: total: 5,664 km
border countries: Angola 1,110 km,
Democratic Republic of the Congo
1,930 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique
419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338
km, Zimbabwe 797 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: tropical; modified by altitude;
rainy season (October to April)
Terrain: mostly high plateau with some hills
and mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed location in
Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
Natural resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal,
emeralds, gold, silver, uranium,
Land use: arable land: 7.08%
permanent crops: 0.03%
other: 92.9% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: 460 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: tropical storms (November to April)
Environment - current issues: air pollution and resulting acid
rain in the mineral extraction and
refining region; chemical runoff
into watersheds; poaching seriously
threatens rhinoceros, elephant,
antelope, and large cat populations;
deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; lack of adequate
water treatment presents human
health risks
Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate
Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note: landlocked; the Zambezi forms a
natural riverine boundary with

People Zambia
Population: 9,959,037
note: estimates for this country
explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to
AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality
and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the
distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be
expected (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.1% (male 2,357,581;
female 2,335,644)
15-64 years: 50.4% (male 2,497,360;
female 2,519,227)
65 years and over: 2.5% (male
106,160; female 143,065) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.9% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 41.01 births/1,000 population (2002
Death rate: 21.89 deaths/1,000 population (2002
Net migration rate: -0.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population
(2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/
total population: 0.99 male(s)/
female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 89.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2002
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 37.35 years
female: 37.66 years (2002 est.)
male: 37.05 years
Total fertility rate: 5.43 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 19.95% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 870,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 99,000 (1999 est.)
Nationality: noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
Ethnic groups: African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other
Religions: Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu
24%-49%, indigenous beliefs 1%
Languages: English (official), major
vernaculars - Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi,
Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and
about 70 other indigenous languages
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read
and write English
total population: 78.9%
male: 85.7%
female: 72.6%

Government Zambia
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
Government type: republic
Capital: Lusaka
Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt,
Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern,
North-Western, Southern, Western
Independence: 24 October 1964 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Constitution: 2 August 1991
Legal system: based on English common law and
customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in an ad hoc
constitutional council; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Levy
MWANAWASA (since 2 January 2002);
Vice President Enoch KAVINDELE
(since 4 May 2001); note - the
president is both the chief of state
and head of government
head of government: President Levy
MWANAWASA (since 2 January 2002);
Vice President Enoch KAVINDELE
(since 4 May 2001); note - the
president is both the chief of state
and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the
president from among the members of
the National Assembly
elections: president elected by
popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 27 December 2001
(next to be held NA 2006); vice
president appointed by the president

election results: Levy MWANAWASA
elected president; percent of vote -
Levy MWANAWASA 29%, Anderson MAZOKA
27%, Christon TEMBO 13%, Tilyenji
KAUNDA 10%, Godfrey MIYANDA 8%,
Benjamin MWILA 5%, Michael SATA 3%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (150
seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve five-year
elections: last held 27 December
2001 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: percent of vote by
party - MMD 45.9%, UPND 32.4%, UNIP
8.8%, FDD 8.1%, HP 2.7%, PF 0.7%,
ZRP 0.7%, independents 0.7%; seats
by party - MMD 68, UPND 48, UNIP 13,
FDD 12, HP 4, PF 1, ZRP 1,
independents 1; seats not determined
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (the final court of
appeal; justices are appointed by
the president); High Court (has
unlimited jurisdiction to hear civil
and criminal cases)
Political parties and leaders: Agenda for Zambia or AZ [Inonge
Democracy and Development or FDD
[Christon TEMBO]; Heritage Party or
HP [Godfrey MIYANDA]; Liberal
Progressive Front or LPF [Roger
CHONGWE, president]; Movement for
Multiparty Democracy or MMD
[Frederick CHILUBA, president];
National Citizens Coalition or NCC
[Nevers MUMBA, president]; National
Leadership for Development or NLD
[Yobert SHAMAPANDE]; National Party
or NP [Dr. Sam CHIPUNGU]; Patriotic
Front or PF [Michael SATA]; Zambian
Republican Party or ZRP [Benjamin
MWILA]; Social Democratic Party or
SDP [Gwendoline Konie]; United
National Independence Party or UNIP
[Francis NKHOMA, president]; United
Party for National Development or
UPND [Anderson MAZOKA]
Political pressure groups and NA
International organization ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-19,
participation: G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MONUC, NAM,
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Atan
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717
through 9719
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue
NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador David
embassy: corner of Independence and
United Nations Avenues
mailing address: P. O. Box 31617,
telephone: [260] (1) 250-955
FAX: [260] (1) 252-225
Flag description: green with a panel of three vertical
bands of red (hoist side), black,
and orange below a soaring orange
eagle, on the outer edge of the flag

Economy Zambia
Economy - overview: Despite progress in privatization
and budgetary reform, Zambia's
economy has a long way to go.
Privatization of government-owned
copper mines relieved the government
from covering mammoth losses
generated by the industry and
greatly improved the chances for
copper mining to return to
profitability and spur economic
growth. However, low mineral prices
have slowed the benefits from
privatizing the mines and reduced
incentives for further private
investment in the sector. In late
2000, Zambia was determined to be
eligible for debt relief under the
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
(HIPC) initiative, but Zambia has
not yet finalized its Poverty
Reduction Strategy paper.
Unemployment rates remain high, but
GDP growth should continue at about
4%. Inflation should remain close to
GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.5
billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.9% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $870 (2001
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 24%
industry: 25%
services: 51% (2000)
Population below poverty line: 86% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 1.1%
percentage share: highest 10%: 41% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini 52.6 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 21.5% (2001)
Labor force: 3.4 million
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry 6%,
services 9%
Unemployment rate: 50% (2000 est.)
Budget: revenues: $1.2 billion
expenditures: $1.25 billion,
including capital expenditures of
$NA (2001 est.)
Industries: copper mining and processing,
construction, foodstuffs, beverages,
chemicals, textiles, fertilizer,
Industrial production growth rate: 5.1% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production: 7.822 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 0.51%
hydro: 99.49%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption: 5.838 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 1.536 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 100 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts,
sunflower seed, vegetables, flowers,
tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava
(tapioca); cattle, goats, pigs,
poultry, milk, eggs, hides; coffee
Exports: $876 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities: copper 55%, cobalt, electricity,
tobacco, flowers, cotton
Exports - partners: UK 25.2%, South Africa 24.5%,
Switzerland 9.4%, Malawi 7.5% (2000)
Imports: $12.05 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, transportation equipment,
petroleum products, electricity,
fertilizer; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners: South Africa 67.1%, UK 9.8%,
Zimbabwe 7.5%, US 5.9% (2000)
Debt - external: $5.8 billion (2001)
Economic aid - recipient: $651 million (2000 est.)
Currency: Zambian kwacha (ZMK)
Currency code: ZMK
Exchange rates: Zambian kwacha per US dollar -
3,848.65 (January 2002), 3,610.94
(2001), 3,110.84 (2000), 2,388.02
(1999), 1,862.07 (1998), 1,314.50
Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Zambia
Telephones - main lines in use: 130,000 (including more than 40,000
fixed telephones in wireless local
loop connections) (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 75,000 (2001)
Telephone system: general assessment: facilities are
aging but still among the best in
Sub-Saharan Africa
domestic: high-capacity microwave
radio relay connects most larger
towns and cities; several cellular
telephone services in operation;
Internet service is widely
available; very small aperture
terminal (VSAT) networks are
operated by private firms
international: satellite earth
stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian
Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 19, FM 5, shortwave 4 (2001)
Radios: 1.2 million (2001)
Television broadcast stations: 9 (2002)
Televisions: 277,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .zm
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (2001)
Internet users: 15,000 (2000)

Transportation Zambia
Railways: total: 2,157 km
narrow gauge: 2,157 km 1.067-m gauge
(13 km double-track)
note: the total includes 891 km of
the Tanzania-Zambia Railway
Authority (TAZARA), which operates
1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge
track between Dar es Salaam and
Kapiri Mposhi where it connects to
the Zambia Railways system; TAZARA
is not a part of the Zambia Railways
system; Zambia Railways assets are
scheduled for concessioning (2002)
Highways: total: 66,781 km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km (1997 est.)
Waterways: 2,250 km
note: includes Lake Tanganyika and
the Zambezi and Luapula rivers
Pipelines: crude oil 1,724 km
Ports and harbors: Mpulungu
Airports: 111 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 11
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 100
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 66
under 914 m: 30 (2001)

Military Zambia
Military branches: Army, Air Force, Police,
paramilitary forces
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,313,567 (2002
Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,228,385 (2002
service: est.)
Military expenditures - dollar $32.5 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of 0.9% (FY01)

Transnational Issues Zambia
Disputes - international: none
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for moderate
amounts of methaqualone, small
amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound
for Southern Africa and possibly
Europe; regional money-laundering
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